Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S subunit of their ribosomes. This binding disrupts proofreading in bacterial protein synthesis, leading to the production of non-functional or truncated proteins. Examples of the aminoglycoside family include amikacin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. Alone, aminoglycosides are effective against Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, but could also treat Gram-positive bacteria if combined with a cell wall synthesis inhibitor, like a beta-lactam antibiotic, or with vancomycin. Notable adverse drug reactions include nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscular blockade, nausea, and allergic reaction.
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