Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines


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Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

HYMS year 3

HYMS year 3

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands

Anatomy of the urinary organs of the pelvis

Anatomy of the female urogenital triangle

Anatomy of the perineum

Anatomy clinical correlates: Male pelvis and perineum

Anatomy clinical correlates: Female pelvis and perineum

Development of the renal system

Ureter, bladder and urethra histology

Kidney histology

Renal system anatomy and physiology


Body fluid compartments

Movement of water between body compartments

Renal clearance

Glomerular filtration

TF/Px ratio and TF/Pinulin

Measuring renal plasma flow and renal blood flow

Regulation of renal blood flow

Tubular reabsorption and secretion

Tubular secretion of PAH

Tubular reabsorption of glucose

Urea recycling

Tubular reabsorption and secretion of weak acids and bases

Proximal convoluted tubule

Loop of Henle

Distal convoluted tubule

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Sodium homeostasis

Potassium homeostasis

Phosphate, calcium and magnesium homeostasis


Antidiuretic hormone

Kidney countercurrent multiplication

Free water clearance

Vitamin D


Physiologic pH and buffers

Buffering and Henderson-Hasselbalch equation

The role of the kidney in acid-base balance

Acid-base map and compensatory mechanisms

Respiratory acidosis

Metabolic acidosis

Plasma anion gap

Respiratory alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis

Renal agenesis

Horseshoe kidney

Potter sequence











Renal tubular acidosis

Minimal change disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)


Membranous nephropathy

Lupus nephritis

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

IgA nephropathy (NORD)

Alport syndrome

Kidney stones


Acute pyelonephritis

Chronic pyelonephritis

Prerenal azotemia

Renal azotemia

Acute tubular necrosis

Postrenal azotemia

Renal papillary necrosis

Renal cortical necrosis

Chronic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Medullary cystic kidney disease

Medullary sponge kidney

Renal artery stenosis

Renal cell carcinoma


Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)

WAGR syndrome

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Posterior urethral valves

Hypospadias and epispadias

Vesicoureteral reflux

Bladder exstrophy

Urinary incontinence

Neurogenic bladder

Lower urinary tract infection

Transitional cell carcinoma

Non-urothelial bladder cancers

Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review

Renal tubular defects: Pathology review

Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review

Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review

Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review

Renal failure: Pathology review

Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review

Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

Urinary tract infections: Pathology review

Kidney stones: Pathology review

Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review

Osmotic diuretics

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Loop diuretics

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Potassium sparing diuretics

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Endocrine system anatomy and physiology

Hunger and satiety




Diabetes mellitus

Diabetic retinopathy

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review

Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review


Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Prostate cancer

Prostate gland histology

Androgens and antiandrogens

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers


Graves disease

Thyroid eye disease (NORD)

Toxic multinodular goiter

Thyroid storm

Euthyroid sick syndrome

Thyroid hormones

Hashimoto thyroiditis

Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis


Thyroglossal duct cyst

Riedel thyroiditis

Thyroid cancer

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Primary adrenal insufficiency

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome


Adrenal cortical carcinoma

Cushing syndrome

Conn syndrome




Pituitary adenoma






Pituitary apoplexy

Sheehan syndrome


Constitutional growth delay

Diabetes insipidus

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Kallmann syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome



Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)

Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review

Adrenal masses: Pathology review

Hyperthyroidism: Pathology review

Hypothyroidism: Pathology review

Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review

Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease: Pathology review

Pituitary tumors: Pathology review

Hypopituitarism: Pathology review

Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review

Adrenal hormone synthesis inhibitors

Mineralocorticoids and mineralocorticoid antagonists

Synthesis of adrenocortical hormones



Estrogen and progesterone

Parathyroid hormone


Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Growth hormone and somatostatin

Oxytocin and prolactin

Pituitary gland histology

Pancreas histology

Thyroid and parathyroid gland histology

Adrenal gland histology

Iron deficiency anemia



Sideroblastic anemia

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

Anemia of chronic disease

Lead poisoning

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Pyruvate kinase deficiency

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Hereditary spherocytosis

Sickle cell disease (NORD)

Fanconi anemia

Megaloblastic anemia

Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency

Aplastic anemia

Vitamin B12 deficiency

Diamond-Blackfan anemia

Acute intermittent porphyria

Porphyria cutanea tarda


Vitamin K deficiency

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Bernard-Soulier syndrome

Glanzmann's thrombasthenia

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Von Willebrand disease

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

Factor V Leiden

Protein C deficiency

Protein S deficiency

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antithrombin III deficiency

Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Chronic leukemia

Acute leukemia

Myelodysplastic syndromes

Polycythemia vera (NORD)

Myelofibrosis (NORD)

Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)

Leukemoid reaction

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Multiple myeloma

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

Mastocytosis (NORD)

Microcytic anemia: Pathology review

Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review

Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review

Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review

Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review

Heme synthesis disorders: Pathology review

Coagulation disorders: Pathology review

Platelet disorders: Pathology review

Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review

Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review

Lymphomas: Pathology review

Leukemias: Pathology review

Plasma cell disorders: Pathology review

Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review

Anticoagulants: Heparin

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications


Hematopoietic medications

Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors

Topoisomerase inhibitors

Platinum containing medications

Anti-tumor antibiotics

Microtubule inhibitors

DNA alkylating medications

Monoclonal antibodies

Antimetabolites for cancer treatment

Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands

Pharyngeal arches, pouches, and clefts

Blood histology

Blood components

Blood groups and transfusions

Platelet plug formation (primary hemostasis)

Coagulation (secondary hemostasis)

Role of Vitamin K in coagulation

Clot retraction and fibrinolysis

Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs

Anatomy of the male urogenital triangle

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Major depressive disorder


Bipolar disorder

Seasonal affective disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders

Tourette syndrome

Social anxiety disorder

Learning disability

Somatic symptom disorder

Factitious disorder

Cluster A personality disorders

Cluster C personality disorders

Cluster B personality disorders


Schizoaffective disorder

Schizophreniform disorder

Delusional disorder

Alcohol use disorder

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome


Panic disorder


Dissociative disorders

von Hippel-Lindau disease



Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Body focused repetitive disorders

Body dysmorphic disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Physical and sexual abuse

Anorexia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa

Tobacco dependence

Opioid dependence

Cannabis dependence

Cocaine dependence


Nocturnal enuresis


Night terrors

Narcolepsy (NORD)

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Autism spectrum disorder

Rett syndrome

Shaken baby syndrome



Serotonin syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Mood disorders: Pathology review

Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review

Personality disorders: Pathology review

Eating disorders: Pathology review

Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review

Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review

Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review

Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review

Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review

Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

Tricyclic antidepressants

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Atypical antidepressants

Typical antipsychotics

Atypical antipsychotics

Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Fragile X syndrome

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

Alzheimer disease

Vascular dementia

Frontotemporal dementia

Lewy body dementia


Nonbenzodiazepine anticonvulsants

Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates

Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines

Psychomotor stimulants

Pyloric stenosis


Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Dental abscess

Gingivitis and periodontitis

Dental caries disease

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Sleep apnea

Esophageal cancer



Cleft lip and palate

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Esophageal web

Tracheoesophageal fistula


Oral candidiasis

Ludwig angina

Barrett esophagus


Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome

Zenker diverticulum

Diffuse esophageal spasm

Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)


Gastric dumping syndrome

Peptic ulcer


Cyclic vomiting syndrome


Gastric cancer


Portal hypertension


Wilson disease

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Biliary atresia

Gilbert's syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Rotor syndrome


Hepatic encephalopathy

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Cholestatic liver disease

Hepatocellular adenoma

Autoimmune hepatitis

Alcohol-induced liver disease

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Neonatal hepatitis

Reye syndrome

Benign liver tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma


Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Ascending cholangitis

Chronic cholecystitis

Gallstone ileus

Gallbladder cancer


Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatic cancer


Gastrointestinal system anatomy and physiology

Anatomy and physiology of the teeth

Liver anatomy and physiology

Enteric nervous system

Esophageal motility

Gastric motility

Gastrointestinal hormones

Chewing and swallowing

Carbohydrates and sugars

Fats and lipids


Vitamins and minerals

Intestinal fluid balance

Pancreatic secretion

Bile secretion and enterohepatic circulation

Prebiotics and probiotics

Imperforate anus


Meckel diverticulum

Intestinal atresia

Hirschsprung disease

Intestinal malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis


Tropical sprue

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome

Celiac disease

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Lactose intolerance

Whipple's disease

Protein losing enteropathy

Microscopic colitis

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Bowel obstruction

Intestinal adhesions


Abdominal hernias

Femoral hernia

Inguinal hernia

Small bowel ischemia and infarction

Ischemic colitis

Familial adenomatous polyposis

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Gardner syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Colorectal polyps

Colorectal cancer

Irritable bowel syndrome

Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


Anal fissure

Anal fistula


Rectal prolapse

Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review

Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review

Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Diverticular disease: Pathology review

Appendicitis: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review

Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review

Pancreatitis: Pathology review

Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review

Jaundice: Pathology review

Viral hepatitis: Pathology review

Cirrhosis: Pathology review

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Anatomy of the pharynx and esophagus

Anatomy of the oral cavity

Anatomy of the salivary glands

Anatomy of the tongue

Anatomy of the anterolateral abdominal wall

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Blood supply of the foregut, midgut and hindgut

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Pancreas and spleen

Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Innervation of the abdominal viscera

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Liver, biliary ducts and gallbladder

Anatomy of the diaphragm

Anatomy of the inguinal region

Anatomy of the muscles and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall

Anatomy of the peritoneum and peritoneal cavity

Anatomy of the vessels of the posterior abdominal wall

Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall

Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the gastrointestinal tract

Anatomy clinical correlates: Peritoneum and diaphragm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Inguinal region

Development of the digestive system and body cavities

Development of the gastrointestinal system

Development of the teeth

Development of the tongue

Gallbladder histology

Esophagus histology

Stomach histology

Small intestine histology

Colon histology

Liver histology

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Benign prostatic hyperplasia




Testicular cancer


Testicular torsion


Penile cancer

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Aortic aneurysms and dissections: Clinical (To be retired)

Abdominal pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Esophageal surgical conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Appendicitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Hernias: Clinical (To be retired)

Bowel obstruction: Clinical (To be retired)

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Abdominal trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Gallbladder disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Pancreatitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Breast cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Preoperative evaluation: Clinical (To be retired)

Postoperative evaluation: Clinical (To be retired)

Helicobacter pylori

Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)

Breast cancer

Paget disease of the breast

Phyllodes tumor

Intraductal papilloma

Fibrocystic breast changes



Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review