00:00 / 00:00
0 / 15 complete
0 / 3 complete
psoriasis p. 489
psoriatic p. 479
psoriasis p. 489
arthritis and p. 479
cyclosporine p. 118
etanercept for p. 501
hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis p. 487
infliximab/adalimumab for p. 501
methotrexate for p. 448
skin lesions p. 489
therapeutic antibodies p. 120
psoriasis and p. 489
psoriasis p. 489
It can be incredibly itchy and form silver plaques on the skin that can be embarrassing, and have both physical and psychological effects.
Afflicted reality TV star Kim Kardashian, and singer Cyndi Lauper have each spoken out on how psoriasis can have a significantly negative impact on the quality of life.
The hypodermis is made of fat and connective tissue that anchors the skin to the underlying muscle.
Just above the dermis is the epidermis.
The epidermis itself has multiple cell layers that are composed of developing keratinocytes - which are named for the keratin protein that they’re filled with.
Keratin is a strong, fibrous protein that allows keratinocytes to protect themselves from getting destroyed when you rub your hands through the sand at the beach.
Keratinocytes start their life at the lowest layer of the epidermis called the stratum basale, or basal layer, which is made of a single layer of small, cuboidal to low columnar stem cells that continually divide and produce new keratinocytes.
These new keratinocytes migrate upwards, forming the other layers of the epidermis.
As keratinocytes in the stratum basale begin to mature and lose the ability to divide, they migrate into the next layer, called the stratum spinosum which is about 8 to 10 cell layers thick.
The next layer up is the stratum granulosum which is 3 to 5 cell layers thick.
Keratinocytes in this layer begin the process of keratinization, which is the process where the keratinocytes flatten out, and get rid of their intracellular structures and die, and in the process they create the epidermal skin barrier.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the skin, which leads to the excessive proliferation of keratinocytes that don't mature correctly. It is characterized by thick, scaly, and silvery patches on the skin, known as plaques. These plaques are often itchy and painful, and they can crack and bleed. Psoriasis typically appears on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back, but it can also affect the nails, genitals, and mouth. Psoriasis treatment can include topical creams and ointments; immunosuppressive therapies, and UV phototherapy. For some individuals, there can be significant feelings of depression or anxiety, and a need for psychological counseling.
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