Airflow, pressure, and resistance
Alveolar gas equation
Breathing cycle and regulation
Diffusion-limited and perfusion-limited gas exchange
Fick's laws of diffusion
Gas exchange in the lungs, blood and tissues
Ideal (general) gas law
Reading a chest X-ray
Respiratory system anatomy and physiology
Alveolar surface tension and surfactant
Combined pressure-volume curves for the lung and chest wall
Compliance of lungs and chest wall
Carbon dioxide transport in blood
Oxygen binding capacity and oxygen content
Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
Anatomic and physiologic dead space
Lung volumes and capacities
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Pulmonary changes during exercise
Pulmonary chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors
Regulation of pulmonary blood flow
Ventilation-perfusion ratios and V/Q mismatch
Zones of pulmonary blood flow
Pulmonary chemoreceptors are specialized sensory cells located in the medulla, the aortic and carotid bodies, which detect changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood. There are also pulmonary mechanoreceptors, which are specialized sensory cells located in the lungs and the airway smooth muscles. They respond to changes in lung stretch or pressure. Both the pulmonary chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors work together to help maintain proper gas exchange and lung function during exercise and other activities that can alter the body's oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.
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