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Prerequisite basic sciences
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
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In obstructive lung diseases like asthma, where individuals suffer from reversible narrowing of the airways, medications like bronchodilators are helpful in keeping the airways open.
But, most of the times, narrowing of the airways actually occurs as a result of inflammation and excessive release of various inflammatory chemical mediators like leukotrienes and prostaglandins.
So, to effectively manage the disease, it’s important to give medications that will control the inflammation.
In the bronchioles you’ve got the lumen, the mucosa, which includes the inner lining of epithelial cells, as well as the lamina propria which contains many cells like the type 2 helper cells, B cells, and mast cells.
Surrounding the lamina propria, there is a layer of smooth muscles and submucosa.
The submucosal layer contains mucus-secreting glands and blood vessels.
Now, the molecular pathway that leads to asthma is actually pretty complex, but it is often initiated by an environmental trigger.
These cells then produce cytokines like IL-4 and IL-5 which causes the inflammatory response.
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors are medications used to treat certain lung disorders. Corticosteroids are a class of drugs that reduce inflammation and swelling in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. They are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and certain types of lung infections. Mast cell inhibitors, also known as mast cell stabilizers, are a class of drugs that prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells in the lungs. They are often used to prevent symptoms of asthma and allergic rhinitis. They are less potent than corticosteroids but are generally well-tolerated with fewer side effects.
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