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Pulmonary hypoplasia

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Respiratory system

Pathology

Upper respiratory tract disorders
Lower respiratory tract disorders
Pleura and pleural space disorders
Pulmonary vascular disorders
Apnea and hypoventilation
Respiratory system pathology review

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Pulmonary hypoplasia

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High Yield Notes
4 pages
Flashcards

Pulmonary hypoplasia

6 flashcards
Questions

USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

2 questions
Preview

A 1-hour-old newborn girl is evaluated in the nursery for respiratory distress. She was born at 34 weeks gestation to a 17-year-old primigravida woman who did not receive prenatal care. The patient’s temperature is 36.4°C (97.5°F), pulse is 128/min, respirations are 80/min, and blood pressure is 75/30 mmHg. Oxygen saturation is 85% on room air. On physical examination, she appears cyanotic, and subcostal retractions and nasal flaring are noted. The nasal tip is flattened, the ears are low-set, and the chin is small and retracted backward. Appropriate treatment is initiated. Which of the following is the most likely underlying cause for this patient’s condition? 

External References
Summary

Pulmonary hypoplasia is a congenital condition in which the lungs are underdeveloped, resulting in an abnormally low number or size of bronchopulmonary segments or alveoli and a reduced lung capacity. Symptoms of pulmonary hypoplasia include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and difficulty feeding. Treatment for pulmonary hypoplasia involves providing supplemental oxygen or using a mechanical ventilator to help the baby breathe. In severe cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.