Pyloric stenosis is the narrowing of the opening from the stomach to the duodenum, often caused due to hypertrophy of the muscle surrounding this opening, which spasms when the stomach empties. Pyloric stenosis causes severe projectile nonbilious vomiting after meals, abdominal pain, poor weight gain, and dehydration. It usually presents in the first few months of life, and the thickened pylorus can be felt classically as an olive-shaped mass in the middle upper part or right upper quadrant of the infant's abdomen. Pyloric stenosis can be treated with pyloromyotomy, a surgical procedure that enlarges the pylorus.
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