00:00 / 00:00
Bias in interpreting results of clinical studies
Bias in performing clinical studies
Attributable risk (AR)
DALY and QALY
Incidence and prevalence
Mortality rates and case-fatality
Relative and absolute risk
Positive and negative predictive value
Sensitivity and specificity
Test precision and accuracy
Modes of infectious disease transmission
Vaccination and herd immunity
Cross sectional study
Placebo effect and masking
Randomized control trial
Randomized controlled trials or RCTs are a type of study design that’s often used to figure out if there’s a causal relationship between an exposure and an outcome.
For example, let’s say we want to find out if a newly discovered drug, let’s call it Drug A, can prevent migraines for up to a year.
In this example, Drug A is the exposure and having a migraine is the outcome.
In the most basic randomized controlled trial, the sample population might be randomly split into two treatment groups, an exposure group that receives Drug A, and a control group that receives a placebo.
The placebo looks and tastes like Drug A but is completely harmless and ineffective - like a tiny capsule filled with water.
After both groups get their treatments, researchers would compare the number of individuals in each group who got migraines over the next year.
Typically, the goal of a randomized controlled trial is to figure out if the intervention can help some target population - usually that’s just people in the general population.
That means that it’s important to perform the trial on individuals that accurately represent the general population.
In other words, the sample population should be similar to the general population.
For example, if researchers want to find out if Drug A helps prevent migraines in women, then women are the target population.
And the randomized control trial should be done on women rather than being done on men.
Furthermore, if the goal is to use Drug A for women around the world, then the sample population shouldn’t just include women living in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Instead it should include women of all ages, races, and socioeconomic statuses from around the world.
If the sample population and that target population are really similar, then the randomized controlled trial has high external validity, meaning that any conclusions made about the sample population can be applied to the target population, which is good news for the manufacturer of Drug A and hopefully means fewer headaches for women around the world!
Now, to make the sample population represents the target population, one tool that can be used is randomization, meaning that individuals get selected to enter the study through a process of chance.
To show how that works, let’s say they put the names of every women in the target population into a brown paper bag, a big brown paper bag.
A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of experimental research design in which participants are randomly assigned to one of two or more groups, such as a treatment group or a control group. The goal is to determine the effectiveness of an intervention or treatment by comparing the outcomes between the groups. Patients who are in a control group receive a placebo instead of the active treatment. The groups are then followed over time to see if there is a difference in the outcome measures (such as symptoms, quality of life, or survival) between the groups.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.