Reviewed by Rishi Desai, MD, MPH
Renal anatomy and physiology
Kidneys are bean-shaped retroperitoneal organs that ultimately serve to alter the components of the blood and excrete urine. The anatomy of the kidney is repetitive and contains many units of medullary pyramids with numerous nephrons within, all surrounded by the kidney cortex. Once urine is produced in the kidney, it exits through major and then minor calyxes into the urinary pelvis which is continuous with ureters to the bladder.