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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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Renal Cell Carcinoma Characteristics
Renal Cell Carcinoma & Nephroblastoma
renal cell carcinoma p. 619
renal cell carcinoma association p. 619
renal cell carcinoma and p. 619
associations p. 736
bevacizumab for p. 445
carcinogens for p. 221
chromosome association p. 62
horseshoe kidney and p. 599
hypercalcemia and p. 219
IFN- αfor p. 200
immunohistochemical stain for p. 218
metastases of p. 202
recombinant cytokines p. NaN
therapeutic antibodies p. 120
von Hippel-Lindau disease p. 541, 727
Renal cell carcinomas (or RCC’s) are the most common type of malignant kidney cancer in adults, generally affecting older men.
Unfortunately, RCC is often considered a “silent” cancer because symptoms don’t typically get noticed until the tumor has grown pretty large.
Renal cell carcinomas form from epithelial cells in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney; this is the section of the nephron that is usually located in the renal cortex—the outer rim of the kidney.
The most common type of renal cell carcinoma is composed of polygonal epithelial cells, which have funny angular shapes with at least four sides and are filled with clear cytoplasm full of carbohydrates and lipids. It’s those lipids that give the tumors their yellow color.
At a genetic level, renal cell carcinomas have been linked to mutations on the short arm of chromosome 3, or 3p. An easy way to remember this is that RCC has three letters and it’s linked to chromosome 3.
One of the main genes involved in renal cell carcinomas is the VHL gene, which codes for the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein, or pVHL which is normally expressed in all tissues.
Mutations in pVHL can allow IGF-1, the type 1 insulin-like growth factor, pathway to go into overdrive. This does two things.
First, there is dysregulated cell growth, and second it upregulates specific transcription factors called hypoxia-inducible factors, which in turn help generate more vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF, as well as VEGF receptor, leading to growth of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis. Dysregulated cellular growth and angiogenesis are a recipe for tumor formation.
Renal cell carcinomas can arise sporadically or they can be a part of an inherited syndrome. Sporadic tumors are usually solitary tumors in the upper pole of the kidney, and most often happen among older men that smoke cigarettes.
Inherited syndromes, like von Hippel-Lindau disease, can also give rise to renal cell carcinomas, and in this situation the tumors typically affect younger men and women and often involve both kidneys.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a type of kidney cancer that originates in epithelial cells in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney. RCCs are the most common type of malignant kidney cancer in adults, generally affecting older men. RCCs can arise sporadically or as part of a genetic condition like von Hippel-Lindau's disease. Symptoms may include blood in the urine, abdominal pain, and a mass in the kidney area. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy.
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