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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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Fanconi Syndrome Causes
Fanconi Syndrome Characteristics
Syndrome Of Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (SAME)
In the Emergency Department, two people came in. One of them is 40 year old Sarah, who came in with rapid, shallow breathing and tachycardia. The other one is 35 year old Alfred, who came in with slow and shallow breathing. An arterial blood gas was taken, along with electrolytes. Results showed that Sarah had low blood pH, bicarbonate and pCO2 levels and her potassium level was also low. Alfred had a high pH, bicarbonate and pCO2 levels, but his potassium level was low. Based on these results, Sarah diagnosed with metabolic acidosis, while Alfred had metabolic alkalosis. Further investigations were done, such as electrolytes and urinalysis. This showed that Sarah had hypophosphatemia and urinalysis showed phosphaturia, aminoaciduria and glucosuria, while Fred had hypokalemia and urinalysis showed hypercalciuria.
Now, the results from the labs of both individuals point towards some kind of a renal tubular defect that’s causing acid-base disorders. Before talking specifics,let’s remember the physiology of the renal tubules. The proximal convoluted tubule or PCT reabsorbs bicarbonate, all glucose, uric acid and amino acids. Apart from this, it also reabsorbs water, potassium, chloride, phosphate and most of the sodium, as well as most of the calcium. PCT also secretes hydrogen and phosphate into the urine. The thin descending loop of Henle reabsorbs water and that’s pretty much it. The thick ascending loop of Henle or TAL on the other hand reabsorbs potassium, chloride and sodium. Now, in order to reabsorb sodium, potassium and chloride, there’s a Na/K/Cl cotransporter or NKCC2, that’s only found in the kidney and its role is to snatch these ions from the urine and reabsorb them. Apart from this, TAL can also reabsorb calcium and most of the magnesium, but doesn’t reabsorb water. Now, the distal convoluted tubule or DCT reabsorbs sodium and chloride, through a sodium-chloride cotransporter, as well as calcium and some magnesium. Again, it doesn’t reabsorb water. Finally, the collecting tubule is regulated by aldosterone and reabsorbs sodium in exchange for potassium and hydrogen. Now, aldosterone acts on mineralocorticoid receptors and in the principal cells of the collecting tubule, leads to potassium secretion, while in the 𝛼-intercalated cells, leads to hydrogen secretion.
Renal tubular defects refer to a group of disorders that affect the tubules of the kidneys. These tubules are responsible for filtering waste products from the blood, reabsorbing essential nutrients, and regulating the balance of electrolytes in the body. When these tubules are damaged or malfunctioning, they can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications, such as electrolyte imbalances, acid-base disturbances, and kidney failure. Some examples of renal tubular defects include Fanconi syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome.
In Fanconi syndrome, there is a dysfunction of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), which results in the excretion of all substances normally reabsorbed by the PCT, such as glucose, bicarbonate, etc. In Bartter syndrome, there are defects in Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter in the thick ascending loop of Henle, which lead to metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and hypercalciuria. Finally, in Gitelman syndrome, there is defective reabsorption of sodium chloride in the distal convoluted tubules (DCT), which leads to metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hypocalciuria. Treatment options may include medications, dietary changes, and in some cases, kidney transplants.
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