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Apnea of prematurity
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Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
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Superior vena cava syndrome
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Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
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Restrictive lung diseases
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Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
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Asbestosis Characteristics and Presentation
Restrictive Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Disease (Overview)
restrictive lung disease p. 696
restrictive disease p. 696
restrictive lung disease and p. 696
restrictive lung disease p. 697
Restrictive lung diseases are just as they sound, restrictive.
There are two types of restrictive lung diseases, interstitial and extra-pulmonary.
For the interstitial type, it refers to the lung tissue itself being damaged.
Imagine a lung being hard and stiff like tough rubber, that lung tissue won’t easily allow air to enter during inhalation, thereby reducing the lung volume.
In the extra-pulmonary type, the structures around the lung are damaged and that prevents chest expansion.
Think about how hard it would be to take a breath when you have someone sitting on your chest.
During inhalation, both the diaphragm and intercostal muscles located in between your ribs contract to pull the ribs up and out and expand the chest cavity. This creates a vacuum which pulls the lungs open.
The air reaches the alveoli and this is where the majority of gas exchange occurs in the lungs.
Between the alveoli, there’s connective tissue made up of proteins like elastin fibers, which give the lungs their rubber-band like properties, and collagen, which gives the lungs their firmness and their overall shape.
During exhalation, both the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles relax to allow the chest wall to fall and return the chest cavity back to normal.
At the same time, the elastin and collagen fibers in the interstitium allow the lung to spring back and push the air back out.
There are a number of ways to measure the volume of air as it is inhaled and exhaled from the lungs.
For example, total lung capacity is the total amount of air that the lungs can hold.
Tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled during normal inhalation and the functional residual capacity is the total amount of air left in the lungs after a normal exhalation.
There’s also the forced vital capacity, or FVC, which is the maximum amount of air exhaled after a full inhalation, and the forced expiratory volume in one second, or FEV1, which is the amount of air forcibly breathed out in one second after a maximum inhalation.
Restrictive lung diseases are a group of lung conditions that make it difficult for the lungs to expand fully, leading to a decrease in the amount of air that can be inhaled. This results in a decrease in lung function, leading to difficulty breathing and reduced oxygenation of the body's tissues.
Common causes of restrictive lung diseases include interstitial lung diseases such as sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and asbestosis, as well as neuromuscular conditions such as muscular dystrophy and scleroderma. Diagnosis is made based on spirometry and chest imaging, and treatment involves bronchodilators and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and improve lung function, as well as oxygen therapy to increase oxygen levels in the body. In some cases, lung transplantation may be necessary.
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