Retinoblastoma is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye. It is the most common cancer of the eye in children, and it is almost exclusively found in young children.
It is caused by a genetic mutation in the retinoblastoma (RB1) gene and it can occur in one or both eyes. The most common and obvious sign of retinoblastoma is leukocoria. It can also cause vision problems such as crossed eyes, eye pain, vision loss, and red or irritated eyes. Treatment for retinoblastoma typically includes a combination of therapies such as laser therapy, cryotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgery to remove the affected eye (enucleation) may be necessary in some cases.