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Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Superior vena cava syndrome
Apnea of prematurity
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome
Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Restrictive lung diseases
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
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Let’s start by better defining the locations of these spaces.
The retropharyngeal space is the region between the pharynx and vertebrae and is bound posteriorly, closer to the vertebrae, by the alar fascia and anteriorly, closer to the pharynx, by the buccopharyngeal fascia.
These lymph nodes are like surveillance stations that bring in lymphatic fluid from the throat and other nearby tissue.
If there are pathogens in that lymphatic tissue, immune cells in the lymph node can respond and try to destroy the invading pathogens.
Next, is the peritonsillar region which refers to the palatine tonsils.
The palatine tonsils are on either side of the oropharynx and are attached to the soft palate at the back of the oral cavity. They’re basically dense collections of lymphatic tissue wrapped within a fibrous capsule - like tiny lymph burritos, that help defend against pathogens in the food and air.
Retropharyngeal abscesses are collections of pus that occur in the retropharyngeal space, the soft tissue space behind the pharynx. Peritonsillar abscesses occur in the tissue surrounding the tonsils. Such abscesses are often caused by bacterial infections, and the most culprit agents are Staphylococcus aureus, Group A Streptococci, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Both types of abscesses can cause severe pain and difficulty swallowing, and can lead to airway obstruction if left untreated. They are typically treated with surgical drainage, antibiotics, and steroids, particularly in situations where there is a lot of inflammation that obstructs the airway.
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