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Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
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X-linked dominant inheritance p. 57
A classic feature is that children often make repetitive hand movements - like flapping their hands or clasping their hands together tightly.
The disease was named after Dr. Andreas Rett, a pediatrician who discovered the syndrome in the 1960s.
To begin, the brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons, each of which is made of up dendrites, that receive signals from other neurons, the soma, or cell body, which has all of the neuron’s main organelles, and the axon which sends signals to other neurons.
In Rett syndrome there’s an X-linked autosomal dominant mutation of the Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene, or MECP2 gene, which codes for MeCP2 protein.
The mutation in the MECP2 gene usually occurs sporadically, meaning that it’s usually not inherited from a parent.
It’s thought that the MeCP2 protein helps to silence or turn off other genes.
Males have only one X chromosome, so if there’s a mutation in the MECP2 gene, then they cannot make functional MeCP2 protein, and that might be why males with the mutation typically die in utero or shortly after birth.
Females have 2 X chromosomes, however, so one mutated MECP2 gene can be compensated for by a normal MeCP2 gene on the other X chromosome.
The genes that are regulated by MeCP2 proteins are particularly important for brain development, specifically to help establish neuronal connections.
So in young girls, when they’re first born, the low levels of MeCP2 proteins are sufficient for normal brain development. But as the brain grows more complex, the level of MeCP2 becomes insufficient and the brain fails to develop normally.
In addition to neurologic effects, Rett syndrome is also associated with prolonged QT syndrome, which is when it takes longer than usual for the heart to repolarize.
Rett syndrome can be thought of in four main stages.
The first stage is the early onset stage and occurs between ages 6 to 18 months.
Before 6 months of age, children with Rett syndrome develop normally, but starting around 6 months, children start to lose interest in play and no longer maintain eye contact.
The second stage is the rapid deterioration stage and occurs between ages 1 to 4 years. In this stage there is a dramatic regressions in speech and motor skills.
Rett syndrome, originally termed cerebroatrophic hyperammonemia, is a rare genetic neurological disorder of the gray matter of the brain that almost exclusively affects females, though it has also been found in male patients. It is caused by a mutation of the MECP2 gene and is inherited in an X-linked dominant pattern.
The symptoms of Rett syndrome typically appear between 6 and 18 months of age and include slowed growth, loss of language and social skills, and the development of repetitive hand movements. Other symptoms can include seizures, scoliosis, and breathing abnormalities.
The diagnosis of Rett syndrome is based on a genetic test looking for the MECP2 mutation, and the treatment focuses on managing symptoms with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to help manage behavioral issues. Additionally, a multidisciplinary team that includes occupational, speech, and physical therapists can help optimize a child's life.
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