00:00 / 00:00
Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
0 / 8 complete
Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Reye syndrome as p. 495
Reye syndrome and p. 397
Reye syndrome p. 397
Here’s an example label taken from a pretty common bottle of aspirin, notice that the first warning is “Reye’s syndrome”, and it says that “children or teenagers who are recovering from chicken-pox or flu-like symptoms should not use this product.” Why’s that?
Reye’s syndrome is characterized by encephalopathy, where encephalo refers to the brain and pathy means that the tissue or organ isn’t quite functioning properly, so there’s some change in the way the brain’s functioning.
Reye’s syndrome’s also characterized by liver failure.
This disease is extremely rare, but when it does happen it typically happens in children between the ages of 4 and 12, following an infection like the flu or chicken-pox and is highly associated with the use of aspirin during the infection.
Since this association was found, the incidence of Reye’s syndrome has dropped significantly, and has led to the requirement of the warning seen on the label for aspirin.
Why though, does Reye’s syndrome seem to happen most often when aspirin is taken during an infection in children?
Ultimately the answer to this question is still unknown, what is known is that in patients with Reye’s syndrome the mitochondria inside their liver cells, or hepatocytes, become damaged.
Mitochondria do a few super important things for our cells, right? Including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty-acid beta-oxidation, both of which help provide energy as ATP to the cell.
So mitochondria are the energy producers of the cell, right?
And when the cells can’t generate ATP they can eventually die because they have lose their main source of energy.
Since the liver cells seem to be the main cells targeted in Reye’s disease, the liver becomes one of the main organs affected.
Still, the question of how mitochondria, specifically in hepatocytes, become damaged remains mostly a mystery.
Reye's syndrome is a rare rapidly progressive encephalopathy that usually begins shortly after recovery from an acute viral illness influenza and varicella. It mostly affects children who recently recovered from viral infections, and who used salicylate drugs such as aspirin during the infection period.
Reye's syndrome is a potentially fatal syndrome that has numerous detrimental effects on many organs, especially the brain and liver. Symptoms include sudden onset of vomiting, lethargy, confusion, seizures, and coma. Treatment of Reye's syndrome usually involves careful monitoring and supportive management. Mannitol or glycerol might be given to reduce cerebral edema, and induced hyperventilation might be initiated to help reduce fluid buildup in the brain.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.