00:00 / 00:00
Back to the Basic Sciences
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands
Renal system anatomy and physiology
Renal failure: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy clinical correlates: Inguinal region
Anatomy clinical correlates: Peritoneum and diaphragm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the gastrointestinal tract
Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Female pelvis and perineum
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Heart
Anatomy clinical correlates: Mediastinum
Anatomy clinical correlates: Pleura and lungs
Anatomy clinical correlates: Thoracic wall
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
ECG cardiac infarction and ischemia
Pigmentation skin disorders: Pathology review
Skin cancer: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine
Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum
Gastrointestinal system anatomy and physiology
Enteric nervous system
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Laxatives and cathartics
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Bile secretion and enterohepatic circulation
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Anatomy clinical correlates: Facial (CN VII) and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Vertigo: Pathology review
ECG cardiac hypertrophy and enlargement
ECG normal sinus rhythm
ECG QRS transition
ECG rate and rhythm
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior blood supply to the brain
Anatomy clinical correlates: Temporal regions, oral cavity and nose
Headaches: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla
Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, fascia and muscles of the neck
Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back
Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder
Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot
Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh
Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee
Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle
Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves
Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Vertebral canal
Back pain: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Male pelvis and perineum
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Eye
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anatomy clinical correlates: Ear
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
0 / 15 complete
Rheumatoid Arthritis Assessment
Rheumatoid Arthritis Interventions
Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Characteristics and Presentation
Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Diagnosis and Management
Jody is a 55 year old woman who presents with a 6 month history of bilateral hand and wrist stiffness.
She mentions that the stiffness lasts for more than an hour a day but tends to improve as she uses the affected joints.
Examination shows swelling, limited range of movement, and subcutaneous nodules over the proximal interphalangeal joints, but no redness.
Then you see Kerry, a 60 year old woman who comes in with a 1 year history of pain in the right knee that has gotten progressively worse.
The pain is worse in the evening or with use of the affected limb and is associated with stiffness, which typically occurs at rest and lasts around 10 to 15 minutes.
Examination reveals Kerry is obese, has bowing of the right knee, and that the affected joint has a limited range of motion.
Blood tests are ordered in both cases, showing in Jody’s case high levels of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA), whereas in Kerry’s case both antibodies were absent.
Both people have arthritis.
Now, a healthy joint usually consists of two bones, each with its own layer of articular cartilage.
Articular cartilage is a type of connective tissue with a lubricated surface that acts like a protective cushion for bones to smoothly glide against.
Now, there are many types of joints, including fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints, which have additional components depending on their function.
For example, synovial joints, like those of the wrist, elbow, knees, shoulders, and hips, are mobile joints that connect two bones via a fibrous capsule that is continuous with the periosteum, which is the outer layer of bones.
The fibrous capsule is lined with a synovial membrane that has cells that remove debris and produce synovial fluid, which is a viscous fluid found inside the joint capsule to lubricate the joint.
Together, the synovial membrane and articular cartilage form the inner lining of the joint space.
Now, arthritis refers to a group of diseases that cause destruction of one or more joints, and it can be classified as inflammatory or non-inflammatory.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are both types of arthritis, but they have different causes and characteristics.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that causes progressive and symmetric destruction of at least three joints, especially the proximal interphalangeal joints, which leads to morning stiffness that lasts for more than an hour and improves with use. It can also present with extra-articular symptoms like uveitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and rheumatoid nodules. The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis involves non-biological and biological DMARDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and glucocorticoids.
Osteoarthritis, on the other hand, is a chronic condition characterized by the breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone followed by inadequate repair. Now, unlike rheumatoid arthritis, which is an autoimmune disorder, osteoarthritis is considered a mechanical degenerative joint disorder. This is because the main culprit seems to be the daily stress applied to joints in our lifetime, especially to weight-bearing joints like those of the ankle, knee, and hip. Symptoms of OA include joint pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion. Treatment of OA involves losing weight, physical therapy, and pain management with drugs like acetaminophen and NSAIDs.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.