00:00 / 00:00
Malassezia (Tinea versicolor and Seborrhoeic dermatitis)
Pediculus humanus and Phthirus pubis (Lice)
Sarcoptes scabiei (Scabies)
Human herpesvirus 6 (Roseola)
Varicella zoster virus
Herpes simplex virus
Poxvirus (Smallpox and Molluscum contagiosum)
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Acneiform skin disorders: Pathology review
Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Pigmentation skin disorders: Pathology review
Skin cancer: Pathology review
Vesiculobullous and desquamating skin disorders: Pathology review
Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review
0 / 18 complete
0 / 2 complete
Congenital Rubella Syndrome - Ian's story
cardiac defect association p. 304
cataracts p. 552
heart murmur with p. 296
rash p. 178
ToRCHeS infection p. 181
unvaccinated children p. 183
rubella p. 166, 181, 178
rubella p. 181
rubella p. 166, 181
rubella p. 166, 178
rubella as p. 164
Rubella, the infection formerly known as “German Measles,'' is caused by the Rubella virus.
Thanks to vaccination, it’s a disease we see less and less, although because some groups are under-immunized, it’s still possible to see outbreaks.
The Rubella virus is part of the Togaviridae family.
Togaviruses are single-strand RNA viruses surrounded by an icosahedral capsid, which is a spherical protein shell made up of 20 equilateral triangular faces, all within a spherical outer lipid envelope.
They’re also positive sense RNA viruses, which means that their genetic material is actually mRNA, so it can be used right away by the host cell to make viral proteins.
Now, the Rubella virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets, which are released into the environment when you sneeze or cough on another person.
Within the nasopharynx mucous membrane, the virus binds to a specific receptor on the membrane of epithelial cells.
It’s then surrounded by a little section of cell membrane that pinches off to form an endosome, that’s brought into the cell.
The low pH in the endosome uncoats the viral RNA and the virus causes changes to the endosome.
Now, when the Rubella virus enters the cell it also rearranges some of the organelles, gathering the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and mitochondria around the endosome.
The result is a membrane-bound Viral Replication Complex where - like the name says - the virus replicates.
So, after the virus replicates, its structural proteins are synthesized using the rough endoplasmic reticulum and these proteins are then transported to the golgi apparatus to be assembled and surrounded by membrane, a process called viral budding.
The new virus copy eventually exits the cell by exocytosis and enters nearby lymphatic and blood vessels, travelling to lymph nodes where it will replicate once again.
From the lymph nodes, it enters blood vessels again, and spreads to various parts of the body, making its way into various bodily fluids like urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and synovial fluid of joints.
Rubella virus is a single-strand, positive-sense RNA virus of the Togaviruses family, which is known to cause rubella, sometimes referred to as German measles. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets and infects and replicates in mucous membrane cells of the nasopharynx, then does the same in lymph nodes, triggering apoptosis in infected cells. Infected children are often asymptomatic or might have mild symptoms like fever, lymphadenopathy, and a rash, whereas adults tend to show more serious symptoms and get sick longer. Complications of rubella are rare but may include arthritis, encephalitis, and thrombocytopenia. Treatment for Rubella is supportive and prevention involves a live attenuated vaccine.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.