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Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Superior vena cava syndrome
Apnea of prematurity
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome
Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Restrictive lung diseases
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
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with sarcoidosis p. 701
sarcoidosis and p. 701
sarcoidosis and p. 701
sarcoidosis p. 701
sarcoidosis p. 700
acute interstitial nephritis p. 626
cardiomyopathy with p. 317
erythema nodosum p. 495
as granulomatous disease p. 209
hypervitaminosis D p. 474
macrophages and p. 415
presentation p. 720
restrictive lung disease p. 701
uveitis p. 555
sarcoidosis p. 701
sarcoidosis p. 701, 720
With sarcoidosis, sarcoid refers to the flesh and osis means disorder - and the reason we called it that, is that sarcoidosis is an immunologic disorder that results in lots of small nodules forming throughout the body. The disease is actually poorly understood though we know it’s most common among African American females.
Normally, the trusty cells of the immune system are ready to spot and destroy any foreign pathogens that could cause the body harm. To help with this mission, there’s a category of cells in the body called antigen-presenting cells, and these include macrophages, B-cells, and dendritic cells.
The most common member of the antigen presenting cell club is the dendritic cell which is named after its long beautiful branch-like arms called dendrites. When a dendritic cell comes into contact with a pathogen, it latches onto it and with its dendrites pulls and engulfs it. The pathogen is then broken down and the dendritic cell presents a piece of it, called an antigen, on something called a major histocompatibility complex class II molecule, or MHC-class II for short.
The dendritic cell then carries the antigen to the lymph node to find some naive helper T-cells which are T-cells that have never seen an antigen before. Eventually, it runs into a naive helper T-cell with a T-cell receptor that recognizes and binds to the antigen. Then, Cytokines get released by the dendritic cell and this helps to activate the helper T-cell which then begins to divide or proliferate.
Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease whereby inflammatory cells called granulomas get abnormally collected in multiple organs in the body, most commonly the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, skin, and liver. Its causes are not fully understood, it is believed to be caused by an immune reaction continuing after the initial infection or causative antigen is cleared from the body. Symptoms vary depending on which organs are affected, but they may include shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, joint pain, vision changes, and skin rashes. Treatment for sarcoidosis depends on the severity and can involve supportive treatment and steroids.
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