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Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Body dysmorphic disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
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schizophrenia p. 579
in schizophrenia p. 579
schizophrenia and p. 579
dendritic branching (schizophrenia) p. 579
antipsychotics for p. 593
atypical antipsychotics for p. 593
drug therapy for p. 592
neurotransmitters for p. 508
readmissions with p. 277
Schizo means split, and phrenia, in this case refers to the mind.
Even though schizophrenia can be interpreted to mean “splitting of the mind”, it does not refer to a split personality, like some media sources might portray, but rather schizophrenia describes a scattered or fragmented pattern of thinking.
Schizophrenia’s actually a syndrome, meaning there’re all sorts of symptoms that might be associated with it and different patients might experience different symptoms, although the symptoms can be broadly categorized into three major areas: positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive symptoms.
Alright taking a step back, most human symptoms from any illness are extreme versions of a normal physiologic process (for example everyone has a heartbeat and tachycardia is a fast heartbeat, everyone has a normal body temperature, but during a fever that temperature is higher).
In schizophrenia, patients have positive symptoms which aren’t positive in the sense that they’re helpful, but positive in the sense that they’re some new feature that doesn’t have some “normal” or physiologic counterpart.
These are the psychotic symptoms, so delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized or catatonic behavior; none of which occur physiologically.
Delusions are false beliefs that the patient might feel very strongly about, so much so that they won’t change their mind, even if you give them evidence against it.
There are all sorts of different delusions, like, for example, a delusion of control, where somebody thinks that some outside force or person or thing is controlling their actions.
They could also be delusions of reference, where someone might think that insignificant remarks are directed at them, like a newscaster is speaking directly to them through the TV.
Hallucinations are a second type of positive symptom, and can be any kind of sensation that’s not actually there, including visual but also including auditory sensations, like hearing voices or commands.
Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by a disconnection from reality and abnormal behaviors. Symptoms are broadly classified as positive symptoms, negative symptoms, or cognitive symptoms. Positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disordered thinking and speech, and unusual behavior; whereas negative symptoms include affective flattening, alogia, apathy, and anhedonia. Cognitive symptoms include things like not being able to remember things, learn new things, or understand others easily. Treatment involves antipsychotic medications and psychotherapy.
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