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Psychological disorders

Mood disorders

Major depressive disorder


Bipolar disorder

Seasonal affective disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Anxiety disorders

Generalized anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder

Panic disorder



Obsessive-compulsive disorders

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Body focused repetitive disorders

Body dysmorphic disorder

Stress-related disorders and abuse

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Physical and sexual abuse

Psychotic disorders

Schizoaffective disorder

Schizophreniform disorder

Delusional disorder


Cognitive and dissociative disorders



Dissociative disorders

Eating disorders

Anorexia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa

Personality disorders

Cluster A personality disorders

Cluster B personality disorders

Cluster C personality disorders

Somatoform and factitious disorders

Somatic symptom disorder

Factitious disorder

Substance use disorders and drugs of abuse

Tobacco dependence

Opioid dependence

Cannabis dependence

Cocaine dependence

Alcohol use disorder

Sleep disorders


Nocturnal enuresis


Night terrors

Narcolepsy (NORD)

Sexual dysfunction disorders

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder

Pediatric disorders

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders

Learning disability

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Tourette syndrome

Autism spectrum disorder

Rett syndrome

Shaken baby syndrome



Psychiatric emergencies


Serotonin syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Psychological disorders review

Mood disorders: Pathology review

Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review

Personality disorders: Pathology review

Eating disorders: Pathology review

Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review

Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review

Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review

Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review

Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review

Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review

Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review




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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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A 23-year-old man is brought to the physician by his parent due to concerns of abnormal behavior. The patient’s parent tells the physician that the patient has been acting in a strange manner lately. Eight months ago, he spontaneously left his job, which he previously enjoyed, without reason. The parent adds that he no longer spends time with his friends and has become increasingly withdrawn from his family. Last month, he started acting as if he was responding to a voice no one else could hear, and he has been heard talking to himself in his room. The patient tells the physician that someone is talking to him and telling him about plans related to people trying to harm him. The patient recreationally uses alcohol and cocaine. He has also smoked one pack of cigarettes per day for the last five years. He was diagnosed with migraines three years ago but has not experienced any headaches recently. According to the patient’s parent, there is no known history of mental health disorders in the family. The physician strongly suspects a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Which of the following is considered a risk factor for this patient’s condition?  

External References

First Aid








Atypical antipsychotic drugs p. 597

schizophrenia p. 583

Delusions p. 582

schizophrenia p. 583

Diagnostic criteria

schizophrenia p. 583

Dopaminergic pathways p. 514

in schizophrenia p. 583

Hallucinations p. 582

schizophrenia p. 583


schizophrenia and p. 583

Neurons p. 507

dendritic branching (schizophrenia) p. 583

Schizophrenia p. 583

antipsychotics for p. 597

atypical antipsychotics for p. 597

drug therapy for p. 596

neurotransmitters for p. 512

readmissions with p. 277


schizophrenia and p. 583

Ventriculomegaly p. 538, 540, 583

in schizophrenia p. 583


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

Schizo means split, and phrenia, in this case refers to the mind.

Even though schizophrenia can be interpreted to mean “splitting of the mind”, it does not refer to a split personality, like some media sources might portray, but rather schizophrenia describes a scattered or fragmented pattern of thinking.

Schizophrenia’s actually a syndrome, meaning there’re all sorts of symptoms that might be associated with it and different patients might experience different symptoms, although the symptoms can be broadly categorized into three major areas: positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive symptoms.

Alright taking a step back, most human symptoms from any illness are extreme versions of a normal physiologic process (for example everyone has a heartbeat and tachycardia is a fast heartbeat, everyone has a normal body temperature, but during a fever that temperature is higher).

In schizophrenia, patients have positive symptoms which aren’t positive in the sense that they’re helpful, but positive in the sense that they’re some new feature that doesn’t have some “normal” or physiologic counterpart.

These are the psychotic symptoms, so delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized or catatonic behavior; none of which occur physiologically.

Delusions are false beliefs that the patient might feel very strongly about, so much so that they won’t change their mind, even if you give them evidence against it.

There are all sorts of different delusions, like, for example, a delusion of control, where somebody thinks that some outside force or person or thing is controlling their actions.

They could also be delusions of reference, where someone might think that insignificant remarks are directed at them, like a newscaster is speaking directly to them through the TV.

Hallucinations are a second type of positive symptom, and can be any kind of sensation that’s not actually there, including visual but also including auditory sensations, like hearing voices or commands.


Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by a disconnection from reality and abnormal behaviors. Symptoms are broadly classified as positive symptoms, negative symptoms, or cognitive symptoms. Positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disordered thinking and speech, and unusual behavior; whereas negative symptoms include affective flattening, alogia, apathy, and anhedonia. Cognitive symptoms include things like not being able to remember things, learn new things, or understand others easily. Treatment involves antipsychotic medications and psychotherapy.


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