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Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Body dysmorphic disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
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Hallucinations, Illusions, Delusions
A 32 year old male named Bert is brought to the psychiatric clinic by his concerned mother, who thinks that Bert’s behavior has changed over the past 9 months. Upon further questioning, Bert’s mother reveals that he has been isolating himself, and stopped calling or visiting his family and friends. Bert says that he must stay at home because some aliens have been trying to control his mind. On physical examination, Bert appears disheveled, has poor eye contact with others, and shows little facial expression. You decide to order a toxicology screen, which comes back negative.
Some days later, you see a 25 year old female named Akuchi, who comes in for a psychiatric consultation. The first thing you notice is that she’s wearing a long coat and a sweater with a mini skirt and flips flops. Akuchi mentions that she has always had trouble fitting in and does not have any friends, even though she’d really like to. When you ask what she does during her free time, Akuchi tells you that she spends most of her time in her room, since she’s convinced that there are vampires hiding in her house, although she’s never seen or heard one. On physical examination, Akuchi’s speech seems peculiar, since she creates new versions of words and often doesn’t make sense.
Okay, based on the initial presentation, both Bert and Akuchi seem to have some form of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. These are a group of conditions, including schizophrenia, that are characterized by difficulty thinking clearly, making good decisions, distinguishing reality from imagination, and behaving appropriately, sometimes even to the point where they interfere with day-to-day activities like working, studying, eating, and sleeping. Now, the main risk factors for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder seem to include having a family history, experiencing a personal trauma, or heavy use of substances, and especially cannabis, during adolescence. And that’s actually high yield!
However, the underlying cause is poorly understood; for your exams, what you need to remember is that it’s related to altered levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine that affect two out of the four dopamine pathways in the brain: the mesocortical pathway, which helps regulate emotions, and the mesolimbic pathway, which controls motivation and desire. Bear in mind that these disorders don’t affect the two other dopamine pathways, meaning the nigrostriatal pathway, which contains motor neurons that bypass the medullary pyramids, to control involuntary movements and coordination; and the tuberoinfundibular pathway, which releases dopamine to limit the secretion of prolactin.
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders refer to a group of mental health conditions characterized by symptoms similar to those seen in schizophrenia, which are positive symptoms like hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior; negative symptoms such as alogia, affective flattening, avolition, and anhedonia; and cognitive ones - like decreased concentration, disorganized thinking, and poor memory. Schizophrenia is the most common of these disorders, with other conditions being schizotypal personality disorder, delusional disorder, and brief psychotic disorder. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are typically treated using second-generation antipsychotic medication such as clozapine, but adjuvant therapies include social approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy.
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