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Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Amenorrhea: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Genital Warts - Condylomata Acuminata
A 35 year old female named Rae comes to the clinic one day with complaints of multiple verrucous skin lesions that have appeared over the anogenital region. Upon further questioning, Rae tells you that her husband also developed the same lesions over the same region a few weeks ago, but hasn’t seeked medical attention. On physical examination, you notice that the skin lesions are soft and flesh-colored, and have a unique cauliflower-like appearance. You decide to perform a biopsy of the lesion, which reveals the presence of multiple vacuolated epithelial cells with enlarged, irregular nuclei.
A few days later, a 30 year old male named Mark comes to the clinic concerned about a painful ulcer that recently developed in his genital region. Upon further questioning, he mentions that he’s sexually active, but doesn’t always use protection. On examination of the genital region, you notice that the ulcer is covered by exudate; in addition, Mark has inguinal lymphadenopathy, which is tender. You obtain a sample of the exudate and order a gram staining, which shows gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria arranged in parallel strands.
Now, based on the initial presentation, Rae has warts, while Mark has ulcers, and both cases seem to be caused by a sexually transmitted infection, or STI for short.
STIs are mainly transmitted from person to person during sexual contact through body fluids, such as vaginal secretions, semen, or blood. The ones most at risk of contracting an STI are sexually active individuals, particularly those who have unprotected sex or multiple sexual partners. But, it’s important to note that sexually transmitted infections can also be transmitted via contact with skin or mucous membranes, including eyes, mouth, throat, and anus. And that’s a high yield fact!
Now, a common STI that may cause warts, called condylomata acuminata, is caused by human papillomavirus, or HPV.
On the other hand, STIs that may cause ulcers include genital herpes, caused by herpes simplex virus, or HSV; syphilis caused by Treponema Pallidum; lymphogranuloma venereum, which is caused Chlamydia Trachomatis; granuloma inguinale caused by Klebsiella granulomatis; and chancroid, which is caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact. Some can cause the formation of characteristic physical features, such as genital warts and ulcers. One STI that's known to cause warts, called condylomata acuminata, is caused by human papillomavirus, or HPV. On the other hand, STIs that may cause ulcers are numerous. They include genital herpes, caused by herpes simplex virus; syphilis caused by Treponema Pallidum; lymphogranuloma venereum, which is caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis; granuloma inguinale caused by Klebsiella granulomatis; and chancroid, which is caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. Treatment of ulcers focuses on threatening the underlying cause, whereas in condylomata acuminata, you treat the culprit microorganism, and remove the wart with topical medications like imiquimod, or techniques like cryotherapy or surgical excision.
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