Short bowel syndrome (NORD)


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Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Gastrointestinal system

Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity disorders



Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders

Cleft lip and palate

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Esophageal web

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Pyloric stenosis



Oral candidiasis

Ludwig angina

Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Dental abscess

Gingivitis and periodontitis

Dental caries disease

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Barrett esophagus


Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Zenker diverticulum

Diffuse esophageal spasm

Esophageal cancer

Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)


Gastric dumping syndrome

Peptic ulcer


Cyclic vomiting syndrome


Gastric cancer

Lower gastrointestinal tract disorders


Imperforate anus


Meckel diverticulum

Intestinal atresia

Hirschsprung disease

Intestinal malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis


Tropical sprue

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome

Celiac disease

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Lactose intolerance

Whipple's disease

Protein losing enteropathy

Microscopic colitis

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Bowel obstruction

Intestinal adhesions


Gallstone ileus

Abdominal hernias

Femoral hernia

Inguinal hernia

Small bowel ischemia and infarction

Ischemic colitis

Familial adenomatous polyposis

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Gardner syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Colorectal polyps

Colorectal cancer

Carcinoid syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome


Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


Anal fissure

Anal fistula


Rectal prolapse

Liver, gallbladder and pancreas disorders

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Biliary atresia

Gilbert's syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Rotor syndrome



Portal hypertension

Hepatic encephalopathy


Wilson disease

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Cholestatic liver disease

Hepatocellular adenoma

Autoimmune hepatitis

Alcohol-induced liver disease

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Neonatal hepatitis

Reye syndrome

Benign liver tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma


Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Ascending cholangitis

Chronic cholecystitis

Gallstone ileus

Gallbladder cancer


Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Gastrointestinal system pathology review

Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review

Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review

Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Diverticular disease: Pathology review

Appendicitis: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review

Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review

Pancreatitis: Pathology review

Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review

Jaundice: Pathology review

Viral hepatitis: Pathology review

Cirrhosis: Pathology review

External Links


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Charles Davis, MD

Evan Debevec-McKenney

In short bowel syndrome, bowel is another word for the intestines.

It’s a condition that occurs when either the small intestine and/or the large intestine become physically shorter when a portion is removed by surgery, or functionally shorter, when a portion is damaged in a way that makes it nonfunctional.

This can lead to poor absorption of water and vital nutrients from food.

Normally, digestion begins when food is chewed and travels into the stomach where it’s dissolved by stomach acid, enzymes, and physical churning.

Then, it’s sent to the first portion of the small intestine, which is called the duodenum.

This is where more enzymes are added from the pancreas to digest macronutrients, including proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, while bile is added from the liver and gallbladder to help absorb fats.

It’s also where the absorption of some minerals like calcium, iron, and magnesium begins.

The next section is called the jejunum, and it has long projections on its surface, giving it a large surface area for absorption.

It plays the biggest role in the digestion and absorption of most nutrients, including the breakdown-products of macronutrients, zinc, water-soluble vitamins, and fat soluble vitamins, namely A, D, E, and K.

The third section is called the ileum, and it has tight intercellular junctions, allowing it to efficiently absorb fluid and begin concentrating the intestinal contents.

Unlike the jejunum, the ileum is also capable of undergoing structural and functional adaptations to compensate for the jejunum if needed.

The final portion is called the terminal ileum, and it absorbs vitamin B12 and bile salts which are recycled.

It ends with the ileocecal valve, which prevents intestinal contents from going into the large intestine too quickly and the backward flow of material.


Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a condition that occurs when a significant portion of the intestines is not functional or removed, either as a result of a surgical procedure or due to a congenital disorder. This leads to malabsorption of water and nutrients, and can cause a wide variety of symptoms depending on the section of bowel involved.

Symptoms of short bowel syndrome can include diarrhea, abdominal cramping and bloating, malnutrition, dehydration, and weight loss. The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the extent of the intestinal damage and the individual's ability to adapt and absorb nutrients from food. Diagnosis depends on the medical history, lab tests, and abdominal imaging, while treatment may include dietary adjustments, diarrhea medications, and total parenteral nutrition (TPN).


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