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Eyes, ears, nose and throat

Eye disorders

Color blindness

Cortical blindness


Homonymous hemianopsia

Bitemporal hemianopsia



Retinal detachment

Age-related macular degeneration

Diabetic retinopathy

Corneal ulcer


Retinopathy of prematurity

Periorbital cellulitis



Orbital cellulitis

Hordeolum (stye)


Neonatal conjunctivitis

Ear disorders

Conductive hearing loss

Eustachian tube dysfunction

Tympanic membrane perforation

Otitis externa

Otitis media

Vestibular disorders


Meniere disease


Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)

Nasal and nasopharyngeal disorders

Choanal atresia

Allergic rhinitis

Nasal polyps

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Oral cavity and oropharyngeal disorders



Ludwig angina

Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Sleep apnea

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Zenker diverticulum

Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses

Esophageal cancer

Laryngeal disorders



Bacterial epiglottitis

Thyroid and parathyroid gland disorders

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroid cancer



Eyes, ears, nose and throat pathology review

Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review

Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review

Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review

Vertigo: Pathology review

Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review

Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review

Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review




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High Yield Notes

11 pages



of complete

External References

First Aid






Sialadenitis p. 385

External Links


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Vincent Waldman, PhD

Tanner Marshall, MS

“Sial” refers to saliva, “aden” refers to a gland, and “itis” is inflammation, so acute sialadenitis is the sudden inflammation of any of the salivary glands, the major ones being the parotid, submandibular and sublingual gland.

Sialadenitis usually affects a single parotid gland rather than both, and is most common among individuals in their 50s and 60s but can happen at any age, even in a newborn.

Acute sialadenitis is most often caused by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, but may also be caused by Streptococcus viridans, or by Haemophilus influenzae, as well as viruses like mumps and HIV.

When it’s a bacterial infection, it often starts up after a salivary duct is plugged up by a salivary stone.

Salivary glands secrete saliva through tiny ducts in the mouth, to help lubricate the inside of the mouth and also moisten and soften food.

The antibacterial properties of saliva and the quick flow through the salivary duct both help to prevent infections from developing.

But there are various factors that reduce the rate of salivary flow, like dehydration, illness, and certain medications. These factors can allow deposits to settle in the walls of the salivary duct, physically blocking the path and further slowing down the flow of saliva.

This can allow tiny areas of stagnation where more deposits of calcium, phosphorous, and other electrolytes can precipitate out, ultimately forming small concretions called microsialoliths, or tiny salivary stones.

Over time, these can grow into sialoliths which are larger salivary stones.


Sialadenitis is an inflammation of the salivary glands, which are glands that produce saliva to help moisten and protect the mouth and digestive system. Sialadenitis can occur due to bacterial or viral infections, blockages in the ducts that carry saliva from the glands, or radiation exposure.

Sialadenitis can be acute or chronic. Acute sialadenitis is typically caused by a bacterial infection like Staphylococcus aureus, which can get established when a salivary duct is plugged up by a salivary stone. Chronic sialadenitis is generally associated with decreased salivary flow, which might be caused by salivary duct fibrosis after an acute infection, or an autoimmune process.

Common symptoms of sialadenitis include pain and swelling in the affected gland, difficulty opening the mouth, and a decreased ability to produce saliva. Sometimes there may be redness, tenderness, and a fever. Diagnosis is generally based on identifying a swollen salivary gland, and a laboratory culture of pus collected from the glands. Imaging can also be helpful to check for an abscess, salivary stone, or tumor. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include hydration, glandular massage to stimulate salivary flow, and antibiotics to treat an infection.


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