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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, is a common hip disorder in adolescence, in which the growth plate fractures.
The result is a slippage between the neck of the femur and the overlying head of femur also called the capital or epiphysis.
Normally, a growing femur has 4 main parts.
There’s the diaphysis, which is the long and hard part also called the shaft of the bone, and it extends to the metaphysis, at the level of the femoral neck.
Above the femoral neck, lies the cartilaginous growth plate also called the physis.
The cartilaginous growth plate has cells which divide and enable the bone to grow in length.
These cells are very active in adolescence and they enable a growth spurt.
During this period, the growth plate is relatively weak and vulnerable to shearing forces.
Eventually, the cartilaginous growth plate ossifies and fuses with the epiphysis. This happens around the age of 16 in females, and 19 in males.
Now, before the growth plate ossifies, it’s supported by the perichondrial ring, which is dense connective tissue that extends from the metaphysis to the epiphysis.
The perichondrial ring helps resist shearing forces so that the femoral head and the femoral neck don’t slip away from one another.
You see - the ball-shaped head of the femur comes and sits within the cup-shaped socket called the acetabulum.
This makes a ball and socket type of joint, which is kept stable by tough fibrous joint capsule, and a rope-like ligament known as the ligamentum teres.
The ligamentum teres arises from the base of the acetabulum known as the acetabular fossa, and it attaches to the fovea capitis, the depression found on the tip of the femoral head.
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a medical condition in which there is slippage between the neck of the femur and the overlying head of the femur, and it mainly affects children and adolescents. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected hip. Treatment includes immobilization of the hip in a cast or brace, followed by surgery to stabilize the femoral head and prevent further displacement. Chronic hip pain, limited mobility, and early osteoarthritis are common complications of SCFE.
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