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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
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Now, the small intestine is made of several layers.
The innermost layer is the mucosal layer and it’s composed of a few of its own layers.
The first layer is the epithelial lining and it faces the lumen; next is the lamina propria, which is rich with blood and lymph vessels; and finally the muscularis mucosae, which has smooth muscle.
Deep to this mucosal layer is the submucosal layer, which has connective tissue with proteins like collagen and elastin, as well as glands, and additional blood vessels.
The submucosal layer also contains the Meissner plexus which is a part of the enteric nervous system.
These muscles are particularly important in helping to move food through the bowel.
Finally, there’s the serosal layer which is the outermost layer of the small intestines that faces the abdominal cavity.
Small bowel ischemia and infarction refer to a medical condition characterized by reduced blood flow and tissue death in the small intestine. It often results from something like a blood clot or a nearby tumor, a hernia, a volvulus, or intussusception, which blocks blood vessels supplying the small intestine. It may also be due to low blood pressure, or a decrease in the overall amount of blood flowing into the area.
Small bowel ischemia and infarction can complicate into an ileus in which food lingers and doesn't get pushed along, or even peritonitis and sepsis. Symptoms include severe abdominal pain( out of proportion to the physical examination), nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and restoring blood flow to the affected area, using medications or surgery. Treatment involves IV fluids, pain management, antibiotics, and surgery if needed.
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