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Body fluid compartments
Movement of water between body compartments
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review
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Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
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Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
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Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pharmacodynamics: Agonist, partial agonist and antagonist
Pharmacodynamics: Desensitization and tolerance
Pharmacodynamics: Drug-receptor interactions
Pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption and distribution
Pharmacokinetics: Drug elimination and clearance
Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism
Androgens and antiandrogens
Estrogens and antiestrogens
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Antihistamines for allergies
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates
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Sodium is a positive ion or a cation noted with Na.
Most of the sodium in our body is located outside the cells, in the extracellular fluid, or ECF for short.
In the extracellular fluid, sodium has a concentration of about 135 milliequivalents (mEq) per liter.
And remember that sodium concentration doesn’t necessarily reflect the total amount of sodium in the body, but rather the amount of sodium relative to the amount of water in the body.
So sodium homeostasis refers to the mechanisms employed by the body to maintain a normal sodium concentration in the extracellular fluid.
Sodium is essential in maintaining water balance, as well as for nerve impulse conduction and muscle contraction.
Additionally, sodium is an important determinant of the volume and osmolality of the extracellular fluid, which is made up of plasma and interstitial fluid.
Now, osmolality refers to the total solute concentration in a certain amount of solvent or water.
By affecting plasma osmolality, sodium determines plasma and blood volume.
So, at the end of the day, it’s important to maintain the sodium concentration in order to keep enough blood inside our arteries.
This blood is called the effective arterial blood volume or EABV, and it’s what ends up perfusing our various organs and tissues.
Okay, now, sodium comes from our diet.
The daily recommended sodium intake is about 2.3 grams per day which is the equivalent of a teaspoon of salt per day.
Once ingested, sodium is absorbed in the blood by the GI tract, and travels through the bloodstream unbound to plasma proteins.
At the other end, some sodium is eliminated from the body through sweat and through feces, but most of it comes out, along with water, as pee.
So the kidneys are the cornerstone of sodium homeostasis.
See, the kidneys are made up of lots and lots of nephrons, and each nephron is made up of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
The renal corpuscle, in turn, is made up of the glomerulus, which is a tiny clump of capillaries, and Bowman’s capsule surrounding it.
Sodium homeostasis refers to the regulation of sodium levels in the body. Sodium is an important electrolyte mainly found in extracellular fluid, which helps maintain fluid balance, blood pressure, nerve impulse conduction, and muscle contraction. The body regulates sodium levels through hormones that control the reabsorption of sodium in the kidneys, as well as through thirst mechanisms. Factors that stimulate sodium reabsorption include the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, ADH, and the sympathetic nervous system. Factors that stimulate sodium excretion include PTH, and peptides like ANP. An imbalance in sodium levels can lead to health problems such as edema, hyponatremia, and hypernatremia.
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