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Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
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spina bifida p. 718
Dandy-Walker syndrome p. 506
labs/findings p. 718
neural tube defect p. 505
The term “spina bifida” comes from the latin “split spine,” which is actually a pretty good description, because spina bifida is a birth defect where the tissue on the left and right side of the back that normally come over the spinal cord to protect it, don’t completely meet up to form a nice seal, leaving behind various degrees of an opening right down the middle of the lower back.
Very early on in fetal development, the ectoderm, which is the outer layer of the fertilized egg, starts to develop a bit of a ridge that eventually becomes the neural tube.
This neural tube goes on to become the spinal cord, the brain, as well as tissues that enclose and protect them, called the meninges, and spina bifida occurs when a portion of this neural tube fails to close properly, typically in the lower back.
This constitutes a defect or absence of the vertebral arches due to failure of mesoderm to organize over the region of the defect, and it may or may not involve the underlying meninges and neural tissue
Alright so there are three main types of spina bifida, the first is myelomeningocele, also called meningomyelocele, and this is the most severe of the three and occurs when the spinal cord and the surrounding meninges protrude out of an opening in the bony vertebrae and are held together by a sack of skin that pouches out from the back.
In really severe cases, there is no skin at all, and the nerves of the spinal cord are therefore exposed, a condition called ‘open spina bifida, and this can cause serious damage to the exposed nerves as well as risk an infection, resulting in symptoms like loss of sensation or paralysis in the areas of the body below the damaged site, bladder or bowel movement problems, seizures, as well as leg and foot deformities.
Spina bifida is a congenital birth defect of embryonic development where there is incomplete closing of the vertebral column and membranes around the spinal cord. There are three main types: spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele. In Spina bifida occulta there is only a small gap in the bones of the spine, and the spinal cord and surrounding tissue don't protrude. In meningocele, the meninges protrude through the opening in the spinal column, but the spinal cord itself is not affected. In myelomeningocele, there is a protrusion of the spinal cord and nerves through the opening of the spinal cord. For treatment, prenatal surgery is done to close myelomeningocele, but this surgery can be dangerous to the developing fetus as well as the mother. In cases where postnatal surgery is chosen, it is often done within the first few days of an infant's life to minimize the risk of infection like meningitis.
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