Spinal disc herniation
Spinal disc herniation is a medical condition in which there is a tear in the outer fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc, allowing the central portion called the nucleus pulposus to bulge out beyond the damaged outer ring. This puts pressure on the spinal nerves and causes pain, numbness, tingling, or muscle weakness in the affected area. Disc herniation is usually due to age-related degeneration of the annulus fibrosus, although trauma, lifting injuries, and straining have been implicated. The severity of the symptoms can vary depending on the size and location of the herniation. Treatment options can range from conservative measures like pain management and physical therapy to surgical interventions in more severe cases.