Spondylolisthesis is a spinal condition that occurs when one vertebra in the spine slips forward over the vertebra below it. This condition most commonly affects the lower back, particularly in the lumbar spine, and can result in lower back pain and sciatica.
Common causes of spondylolisthesis include congenital defects, degenerative changes, trauma, and repetitive stress such as gymnastics or weightlifting. Symptoms include lower back pain, stiffness, muscle spasms, and numbness or tingling in the legs. Diagnosis typically involves a physical exam, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs. Treatment may involve pain medications, physical therapy, or surgery.