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Bacterial structure and functions
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep)
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Strep)
Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Clostridium tetani (Tetanus)
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever)
Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever)
Yersinia pestis (Plague)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis/Whooping cough)
Haemophilus ducreyi (Chancroid)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis)
Mycobacterium avium complex (NORD)
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
Borrelia species (Relapsing fever)
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and other Rickettsia species
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
Ehrlichia and Anaplasma
Gardnerella vaginalis (Bacterial vaginosis)
0 / 7 complete
0 / 3 complete
Staphylococcus epidermidis p. , 133
Gram-positive testing p. 132
in vivo biofilm production p. 127
normal flora p. 175
nosocomial infection p. 182
osteomyelitis p. 177
urease-positive p. 125
vancomycin for p. 187
Evode Iradufasha, MD
Robyn Hughes, MScBMC
Staphylococcus epidermidis or simply Staph epidermidis can be broken down into staph which means grapes, coccus which means round shape, and epidermidis referring to the superficial layer of the skin.
So, Staphylococcus epidermidis are round bacteria that tend to live clustered together as if they were grapes, and they are part of the skin normal flora even though they may also be found living on the mucosa of the gut.
Now, a little bit of microbe anatomy and physiology.
Staph epidermidis has a thick peptidoglycan cell wall, which takes in purple dye when Gram stained - so this is a gram-positive bacteria.
It’s non-motile and doesn’t form spores, and also, it’s a facultative anaerobe, meaning that it can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic environments.
Staph epidermidis is catalase positive, so it makes an enzyme called catalase.
We can use this to differentiate Staph epidermidis from other gram positive cocci, like streptococci and enterococci, which are catalase negative.
To test for this, a few drops of hydrogen peroxide are added to the colony of the suspected bacteria.
So, if catalase is present, like in staph epidermidis, it makes the hydrogen peroxide dissociate into water and oxygen, causing the mixture to foam.
Staph epidermidis is also urease positive, meaning it produces an enzyme called urease that dissociates urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia.
This can be tested by transferring a pure sample of bacteria from the culture to a sterile tube containing a mixture of “urea agar” broth and phenol red. Then, the mixture is incubated.
So, with Staph epidermidis, urease does it’s thing, making urea dissociate into carbon dioxide and ammonia.
Ammonia then makes the mixture change color from orange-yellow to bright pink.
This doesn’t happen with urease negative Gram-positive cocci, like Streptococcus pneumoniae or Enterococcus faecalis.
Furthermore, unlike many other Staphylococcus species, Staph epidermidis and its close relative, Staph saprophyticus, are both coagulase negative, meaning they don’t produce an enzyme called coagulase.
Testing for coagulase is done by transferring a colony of the suspected bacteria in test tube containing fibrinogen-rich plasma.
Coagulase-positive bacteria, like Staph aureus, convert the soluble fibrinogen into sticky fibrin, which then visibly clumps up.
With coagulase negative species, like Staph epidermidis or Staph saprophyticus, the fibrin doesn’t clump up.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a round, gram-positive, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, and urease-positive bacteria, which is normally part of the normal human flora, especially on the skin and mucosa. While S. epidermidis is generally harmless, it can cause opportunistic infections in people with weakened immune systems.
S. epidermidis is known to cause skin infections such as impetigo or cellulitis, but it's best known to contaminate and make biofilms on indwelling medical devices. From there, it can then get into the blood and cause severe infections, mostly in newborns. Treatment relies on antibiotics like Vancomycin and removing and replacing the infected medical device with a new, clean one.
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