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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
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I survived a subarachnoid brain hemorrhage this year
Epidural Hematoma, Subdural Hematoma, & Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
subarachnoid hemorrhage p. 530, 531, 727
subarachnoid hemorrhage p. 530, 531
labs/findings p. 730
nimodipine for p. 323
presentation p. 727
There are two main types of stroke: a hemorrhagic stroke, which occurs when an artery ruptures and bleeds within the brain, and an ischemic stroke, which occurs when an artery gets blocked.
Hemorrhagic strokes can be further split into two types, an intracerebral hemorrhage which is when bleeding occurs within the cerebrum, and a subarachnoid hemorrhage which is when bleeding occurs between the pia mater and arachnoid mater of the meninges - the inner and middle layers that wrap around the brain.
We’ll focus on subarachnoid hemorrhage, which can quickly lead to death if they’re left untreated.
Subarachnoid hemorrhages can lead to a pool of blood under the arachnoid mater that increases the intracranial pressure and prevents more blood from flowing into the brain.
Ok - let’s start with three protective layers of the brain called meninges.
The inner layer of the meninges is the pia mater, the middle layer is the arachnoid mater, and the outer layer is the dura mater.
Between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater is the subarachnoid space, which houses cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF.
CSF is a clear, watery liquid which is pumped around the spinal cord and brain, cushioning them from impact and bathing them in nutrients.
This space is also where the arteries that supplies the brain travel, and it is the location of the blood brain barrier where CSF and the vascular system can exchange nutrients.
The brain has a few regions - the most obvious is the cerebrum, which is divided into two cerebral hemispheres, each of which has a cortex - an outer region - divided into four lobes including the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and the occipital lobe.
There are also a number of additional structures - including the cerebellum, which is down below, as well as the brainstem which connects to the spinal cord.
The right cerebrum controls muscles on the left side of your body and vice versa.
The frontal lobe controls movement, and executive function, which is our ability to make decisions.
The parietal lobe processes sensory information, which lets us locate exactly where we are physically and guides movements in a three-dimensional space.
The temporal lobe plays a role in hearing, smell, and memory, as well as visual recognition of faces and languages.
Finally, there’s the occipital lobe which is primarily responsible for vision.
Within the cortex are deeper structures like the internal capsule, which is like a highway that allows information to flow through neurons that are going to and from the cerebral cortex.
There’s also the basal ganglia, which helps control smooth movement and cognitive function, along with the cerebellum.
The cerebellum also helps with muscle coordination and balance.
And finally, there’s the brainstem, which plays a vital role in functions like heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, intestinal motility, and consciousness.
The brain receives blood from the left and right internal carotid arteries, as well as the left and right vertebral arteries, which come together to form the basilar artery.
A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space, the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. This may occur spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, or may result from a head injury.
Symptoms of subarachnoid hemorrhage can include sudden, severe headache; nausea and vomiting, confusion, or reduced level of consciousness. Diagnosis is usually done with a CT or MRI that shows blood in the subarachnoid space and blood in a lumbar puncture. Treatment requires prompt surgery to stop the bleeding and prevent further damage. Medications may also be prescribed to reduce swelling and control seizures.
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