00:00 / 00:00
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
0 / 12 complete
0 / 10 complete
Epidural Hematoma, Subdural Hematoma, & Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
subdural hematomas p. 530
child abuse sign p. 575
Subdural hemorrhage can be broken down. Sub means below, “dural” which refers to the outermost protective layer of the brain, which is called dura mater, and “hemorrhage” refers to bleeding. So, a subdural hemorrhage is when there’s bleeding below the dura mater.
OK - let’s start with some basic brain anatomy. The brain is protected by 3 thin layers of tissue called the meninges which covers the brain and spinal cord.
The inner layer of the meninges is the pia mater, the middle layer is the arachnoid mater, and the outer layer is the dura mater. The pia and arachnoid maters, are also called leptomeninges.
Between the leptomeninges, there’s the subarachnoid space, which houses cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF.
CSF is a clear, watery liquid which is pumped around the spinal cord and brain, cushioning them from impact and bathing them in nutrients. The outer membrane, the dura mater consists of two layers.
The internal layer of the dura mater lies above the arachnoid mater - the two are separated by the subdural space. The external layer of the dura mater adheres to the inner surface of the skull.
A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma where the blood gathers between the dura mater and the brain. It comes from the rupture of the bridging veins found within the subdural space, often due to head trauma, especially in the elderly, babies, and individuals that abuse alcohol.
Diagnosis requires brain imaging like a CT scan, which shows an acute subdural hemorrhage as a hyperdense blood collection, whereas a chronic subdural hemorrhage appears as a hypodense blood collection. It's also important to note that subdural hematomas cross suture lines and follow the contour of the brain forming a crescent shape, unlike epidural hematomas which don't cross suture lines. Treatment for a subdural hematoma includes surgery to remove the blood clot, medications to reduce swelling and pressure on the brain or observation.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.