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Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Transient ischemic attack
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Shaken baby syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Restless legs syndrome
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Central pontine myelinolysis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Adult brain tumors
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Pediatric brain tumors
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Spinal muscular atrophy
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
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subdural hematomas p. 532
child abuse sign p. 579
Filip Vasiljević, MD
Sam Gillespie, BSc
Tanner Marshall, MS
Pauline Rowsome, BSc (Hons)
Subdural hemorrhage can be broken down. Sub means below, “dural” which refers to the outermost protective layer of the brain, which is called dura mater, and “hemorrhage” refers to bleeding. So, a subdural hemorrhage is when there’s bleeding below the dura mater.
OK - let’s start with some basic brain anatomy. The brain is protected by 3 thin layers of tissue called the meninges which covers the brain and spinal cord.
The inner layer of the meninges is the pia mater, the middle layer is the arachnoid mater, and the outer layer is the dura mater. The pia and arachnoid maters, are also called leptomeninges.
Between the leptomeninges, there’s the subarachnoid space, which houses cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF.
CSF is a clear, watery liquid which is pumped around the spinal cord and brain, cushioning them from impact and bathing them in nutrients. The outer membrane, the dura mater consists of two layers.
The internal layer of the dura mater lies above the arachnoid mater - the two are separated by the subdural space. The external layer of the dura mater adheres to the inner surface of the skull.
A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma where the blood gathers between the dura mater and the brain. It comes from the rupture of the bridging veins found within the subdural space, often due to head trauma, especially in the elderly, babies, and individuals that abuse alcohol.
Diagnosis requires brain imaging like a CT scan, which shows an acute subdural hemorrhage as a hyperdense blood collection, whereas a chronic subdural hemorrhage appears as a hypodense blood collection. It's also important to note that subdural hematomas cross suture lines and follow the contour of the brain forming a crescent shape, unlike epidural hematomas which don't cross suture lines. Treatment for a subdural hematoma includes surgery to remove the blood clot, medications to reduce swelling and pressure on the brain or observation.
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