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Bundle branch block
Pulseless electrical activity
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Premature atrial contraction
Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes
Premature ventricular contraction
Rheumatic heart disease
Atrial septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus
Ventricular septal defect
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Transposition of the great vessels
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion
Aortic valve disease
Mitral valve disease
Pulmonary valve disease
Tricuspid valve disease
Coronary steal syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease
Renal artery stenosis
Peripheral artery disease
Subclavian steal syndrome
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deep vein thrombosis
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Pericardial disease: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
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superior mesenteric artery syndrome p. 370
superior mesenteric artery syndrome and p. 370
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is when the first part of the small intestine—which is the duodenum—gets squeezed between two large arteries: the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery.
So, when the duodenum gets squashed, food can’t easily pass by, and it leads to intestinal obstruction.
Normally, blood heading toward the lower parts of the body exits the heart, swoops through the aortic arch, and then flows downward through the descending aorta, which is a large, muscular blood vessel about as wide as a thumb.
The descending aorta runs along the back of the abdominal wall in front of the spine, and that part is called the abdominal aorta.
The abdominal aorta then forks into the common iliac arteries near the fourth lumbar vertebra, or L4.
Along the way, it gives rise to a number of paired arteries like the renal arteries, as well as three unpaired arteries—the celiac trunk, the superior mesenteric artery, and the inferior mesenteric artery—all of which come off of the anterior or front wall of the aorta and supply blood to the stomach and intestines.
Usually, the angle between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery as it branches off—the aortomesenteric angle—is around 45 degrees.
It turns out that the duodenum, which is the C-shaped first section of the small intestines - passes through this little archway.
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is a condition caused by compression of the small intestine (jejunum) between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. It is a rare disorder, usually occurring in people who have lost a large amount of weight, including the initially present mesenteric fat. This causes the aortomesenteric angle to go from a normal 45-degree angle down to as little as 6 degrees. The result is small bowel obstruction which can cause early satiety and vomiting and can be corrected with weight gain, and in certain cases, surgery.
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