00:00 / 00:00
Bundle branch block
Pulseless electrical activity
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Premature atrial contraction
Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes
Premature ventricular contraction
Coronary steal syndrome
Coarctation of the aorta
Polycystic kidney disease
Renal artery stenosis
Peripheral artery disease
Subclavian steal syndrome
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deep vein thrombosis
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Pericardial disease: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
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Melissa is a 21 year old college student who is having the time of her life at a party. It’s late, and unfortunately she has class the next morning, so she drinks a ton of coffee to sober up. On her way out, Melissa collapses to the floor, but wakes up after a couple of seconds. On her way to the emergency room, she tells the paramedics that she’s “aware of her heartbeat”. Then comes Taylor, a 32 year old female who is brought to the emergency room by her partner because she suddenly collapsed for a couple of minutes while cooking dinner. Taylor is now awake, and she tells you that right before collapsing she was feeling dizzy and like her heart was racing, but now she’s fine. They are both placed on different monitors. Melissa’s heart rate is 200 beats per minute and regular, and this is Melissa’s ECG. On the other hand, Taylor’s heart rate is 80 beats per minute and regular, so everything seems fine. However, her ECG shows this.
All right, so both Melissa and Taylor experienced palpitations and syncope, and their ECGs reveal they both have some form of arrhythmia. The best way to approach arrhythmias is to first: know what a normal ECG looks like, and second: have a good classification system to narrow down the diagnosis.
First, let’s review the normal electrical conduction pathway in the heart, and how it looks like on an ECG. An ECG tracing specifically shows how the depolarization wave flows through the heart during each heartbeat. The normal electrical activity of the heart starts in the sinoatrial or SA node and is then conducted through the atrium, creating the P wave on ECG. From the atrium, electrical activity goes to the atrioventricular, or AV node, after which it goes through the Bundle of His, then the right and left branches of the Bundle, and finally through the Purkinje fibers, which deliver the current to the right and left ventricles. On an ECG, this will create the QRS complex, which represents the depolarization of the ventricles; and finally the T wave, which represents the repolarization of the ventricles. To help identify an irregular rhythm you can look at the morphology of the waveform and make sure that there is a P wave before every QRS complex, and a QRS complex after every P wave.
Now let’s take a look at the heart rate. The resting heart beats at a rate between 60 to 100 times per minute, and each of those beats starts off with depolarization of the sinoatrial node, and so we call it a normal sinus rhythm. For your exams, you should be able to figure out the heart rate on an ECG. To do that, you can count the number of boxes between R waves. Each small box represents 0.04 seconds, and each big box is five small boxes, so each big box is 0.2 seconds. One quick way to estimate the heart rate on an ECG, is to remember that the heart rate is 300, 150, 100, 75, 60, 50 depending on whether there’s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 boxes between R waves. It's also important to know that there is normally a delay in conduction at the AV node and the Bundle of His, which gives some time for ventricular filling before the ventricle contracts. On the ECG, this is represented by the PR interval, which should be less than 5 small boxes, or 200 milliseconds.
An arrhythmia is any disturbance in the rate, rhythm, site of origin, or conduction of the cardiac electrical impulse. Supraventricular arrhythmias are a group of cardiac arrhythmias that originate at or above the atrioventricular node and have a narrow QRS complex (<120 ms). Supraventricular arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and supraventricular tachycardia.
Supraventricular arrhythmias can cause a patient's heart rate to become too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia). They can also cause stasis of blood flow in the atrial compartment and increase the risk of clot formation, especially in the left atrial appendage. These clots can dislodge, and travel into the systemic circulation, causing potentially life-threatening pathologies like embolic strokes, acute limb ischemia, central retinal artery occlusion, or acute mesenteric ischemia.
Common symptoms seen in supraventricular arrhythmias include palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Treatment for these arrhythmias usually involves medications like beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, digoxin, and other antiarrhythmic drugs; or procedures like electrical cardioversion and catheter ablation. In some cases, lifestyle modifications may be recommended to reduce the risk of developing arrhythmias.
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