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Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Premature ovarian failure
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Intrauterine growth restriction
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Neonatal herpes simplex
Congenital rubella syndrome
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
Amenorrhea: Pathology Review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
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Tanner Marshall, MS
Epithelial refers to the surface lining, and ovarian refers to ovary, of which women have two that sit along either side of the uterus so epithelial ovarian cancer, is a cancer that forms along the surface of an ovary.
Now, each ovary contains multiple follicles.
And, each follicle is made up of a germ cell, also known as an oocyte, which is the immature egg.
Between the follicles is the stromal or connective tissue cells, and lining the ovary is a layer of epithelial cells.
Ovarian tumors are generally grouped based on these three types of cells in the ovaries, and the majority of ovarian cancers are epithelial kind.
Now, if an epithelial cell starts to divide uncontrollably, it can either be a benign tumor which means that it does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body, or it can be a malignant tumor which means that it might invade or spread to other tissues.
Compared with benign tumor cells, a distinguishing feature of malignant tumor cells have slightly less organized nuclei.
A third class of tumors are called borderline tumors because they have features that are intermediate between the other benign and malignant tumors.
Epithelial ovarian cancers can be subdivided into four types: serous, mucinous, endometrioid and transitional.
Serous and mucinous tumors arise from epithelial cells that line the outside of ovaries, whereas even though the tumors are found in the epithelium, the endometrioid and transitional cell tumors arise from other cell types.
Serous tumors have fluid-filled cysts, typically a single cyst, and can be benign, malignant, or borderline.
Benign serous tumors are called serous cystadenomas, and are the most common type, and often develop on both ovaries, and typically affect premenopausal women.
Mucinous tumors, on the other hand, have mucus-filled cysts that often involve large multiloculated cysts, but can also be benign, malignant, or borderline.
Surface epithelial-stromal tumors (SESTs), are tumors that arise from the ovarian surface epithelium, ectopic endometrial tissue, fallopian tube epithelium, or the endocervix. They can occur in many organs and tissues, including the ovaries, uterus, and other parts of the reproductive tract. These tumors can vary in size and type and can have variable clinical behaviors depending on the type. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and other therapies, depending on the type and severity of the tumor.
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