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Type I hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Rheumatic heart disease
Type III hypersensitivity
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Type IV hypersensitivity
Cytomegalovirus infection after transplant (NORD)
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (NORD)
Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency
Common variable immunodeficiency
IgG subclass deficiency
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
Isolated primary immunoglobulin M deficiency
Severe combined immunodeficiency
Adenosine deaminase deficiency
Hyper IgM syndrome
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Chronic granulomatous disease
Blood transfusion reactions and transplant rejection: Pathology review
Immunodeficiencies: T-cell and B-cell disorders: Pathology review
Immunodeficiencies: Combined T-cell and B-cell disorders: Pathology review
Immunodeficiencies: Phagocyte and complement dysfunction: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus
0 / 16 complete
0 / 10 complete
lupus p. 480
anemia of chronic disease and p. 429
autoimmune hemolytic anemia and p. 417
azathioprine for p. 446
drug-induced p. 113
isoniazid p. 194
lab/findings p. 723
lymphopenia p. 431
microangiopathic anemia p. 417
neutropenia p. 431
presentation p. 718
α-methyldopa p. 244
hydralazine p. 325
procainamide p. 328
drug-induced lupus p. 251
lupus pernio p. 701
acute interstitial nephritis p. 626
autoantibodies p. 113
DPGN p. 622
HLA subtypes p. 98
kidney disease with p. 618, 622, 626
Raynaud phenomenon p. 483
Tanner Marshall, MS
Alright, “systemic lupus erythematosus,” k we totally got this. “Systemic” is easy, and refers to affecting multiple organs in the body.
“Erythematosus” means reddening of the skin, alright alright.
“Lupus” is latin for “wolf”. So affects multiple organs wolf...reddening of the skin?
Not exactly, the modern use of lupus usually refers to a variety of diseases that affect the skin...which was possibly originally used since these diseases resemble a wolf bite on the patients’ skin.
Is that true? Who knows. At any rate, systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE, sometimes just lupus, is a disease that’s systemic, and affects a wide variety of organs, but notably often causes red lesions on the skin.
But how does lupus affect all these organs? Well usually the immune system protects the body’s tissues from invaders, but lupus is an autoimmune disease, which means that immune cells start attacking the very tissues their supposed to protect.
With lupus, essentially any tissue or organ can be targeted.
And just like a ton of other autoimmune diseases though, it’s not completely clear why it develops, and like most diseases it’s the result of both genetics and the environment.
Alright so let’s go over a specific scenario to show how this plays out.
Let’s say this guy has susceptibility genes—genes that make him susceptible to getting lupus, and he’s exposed to UV radiation in sunlight, which we know is an environmental risk factor for lupus.
Well, given enough UV rays, think like sunburn, the cell’s DNA can become so badly damaged, that the cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and it dies.
This produces all these little apoptotic bodies, and exposes the insides of the cell, including parts of the nucleus, like DNA, histones, and other proteins, to the rest of the body.
Well those susceptibility genes specifically have an effect on this person’s immune system such that their immune cells are more likely to think that these are foreign, or antigens, and since they’re from the nucleus, we call them nuclear antigens, and immune cells try to attack them.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. SLE most often harms the heart, joints, skin, lungs, blood vessels, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. Common symptoms of SLE can include fatigue, joint pain, rash, fever, and anemia. The course of the disease is unpredictable, with periods of illness (called flare-ups) alternating with remissions. Treatment typically involves medications to manage symptoms, reduce inflammation, and suppress the immune system.
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