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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
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Temporomandibular disorders are a group of disorders that all involve the temporomandibular joint, which is located between the temporal bone of the skull and mandible, or jawbone; as well as the muscles and associated structures that are involved in chewing and speech.
Normally, between the temporal bone and the mandible is a synovial cavity, which is wrapped in fibrocartilage and filled with synovial fluid, which is a protein rich fluid that reduces friction between the sliding bones.
The synovial cavity is divided into an upper and lower compartment by an articular disc within the synovial fluid.
The lower compartment is bound, inferiorly, by the condylar head of the mandible.
The lower compartment allows the mandible to rotate, which lets the mouth open and close.
The upper compartment is bound, superiorly, by two regions of the temporal bone: the mandibular fossa, in the middle and back, and articular tubercle, in the front.
Separating these two compartments is the articular disc.
The upper compartment allows the condylar head to move forward and rotate.
The movements of the temporomandibular joint are coordinated by numerous muscles, including: the temporalis, which is a fan-shaped muscle on both sides of the cranium; the masseter, which connects to the mandible and the zygomatic arch of the temporal bone; the medial pterygoid, which connects to the mandible and medial aspect of the lateral pterygoid plate; and the lateral pterygoid, found at the condylar process.
These muscles are innervated by branches of the trigeminal nerve.
Now, the causes of temporomandibular disorders can be categorized as intra-articular, within the joint, or extra-articular, involving the surrounding musculature.
Intra-articular causes, are called temporomandibular joint disorders, and they include things like abnormalities of the bones in the joint, inflammation in the joint from conditions like osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis; disorders of the articular disk; laxity of the fibrocartilage allowing for temporomandibular hyper or hypo-mobility; or trauma that might result in structural damage or bleeding inside the joint.
Temporomandibular disorders are a group of musculoskeletal disorders that result from dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint or masticatory muscles controlling the jaw. It is characterized by pain or discomfort in the jaw, face, and neck, as well as difficulty with chewing, talking, and even yawning.
Some of the causes of TMJ dysfunction include injury to the jaw, arthritis, or stress that causes clenching or grinding of the teeth. It can also result from a misaligned bite, or a structural problem with the jaw joint itself. Treatment of temporomandibular disorder depends on the underlying cause, but the initial goal is to help reduce pain and restore normal jaw function. Also, physical therapy involving jaw exercises can help with pain and range of motion.
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