Temporomandibular joint dysfunction


00:00 / 00:00



Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Gastrointestinal system

Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity disorders



Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders

Cleft lip and palate

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Esophageal web

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Pyloric stenosis



Oral candidiasis

Ludwig angina

Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Dental abscess

Gingivitis and periodontitis

Dental caries disease

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Barrett esophagus


Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Zenker diverticulum

Diffuse esophageal spasm

Esophageal cancer

Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)


Gastric dumping syndrome

Peptic ulcer


Cyclic vomiting syndrome


Gastric cancer

Lower gastrointestinal tract disorders


Imperforate anus


Meckel diverticulum

Intestinal atresia

Hirschsprung disease

Intestinal malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis


Tropical sprue

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome

Celiac disease

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Lactose intolerance

Whipple's disease

Protein losing enteropathy

Microscopic colitis

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Bowel obstruction

Intestinal adhesions


Gallstone ileus

Abdominal hernias

Femoral hernia

Inguinal hernia

Small bowel ischemia and infarction

Ischemic colitis

Familial adenomatous polyposis

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Gardner syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Colorectal polyps

Colorectal cancer

Carcinoid syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome


Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


Anal fissure

Anal fistula


Rectal prolapse

Liver, gallbladder and pancreas disorders

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Biliary atresia

Gilbert's syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Rotor syndrome



Portal hypertension

Hepatic encephalopathy


Wilson disease

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Cholestatic liver disease

Hepatocellular adenoma

Autoimmune hepatitis

Alcohol-induced liver disease

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Neonatal hepatitis

Reye syndrome

Benign liver tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma


Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Ascending cholangitis

Chronic cholecystitis

Gallstone ileus

Gallbladder cancer


Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Gastrointestinal system pathology review

Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review

Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review

Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Diverticular disease: Pathology review

Appendicitis: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review

Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review

Pancreatitis: Pathology review

Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review

Jaundice: Pathology review

Viral hepatitis: Pathology review

Cirrhosis: Pathology review


Temporomandibular joint dysfunction


0 / 6 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 1 complete

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 1 complete

High Yield Notes

4 pages


Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 30-year-old man comes to the office to evaluate right ear pain for the past three months. The pain is constant, dull, and associated with recurrent right-sided jaw pain and headache. The pain worsens throughout the day and with chewing. He hears a “cracking sound” while eating. The patient’s partner says that he grinds his teeth at night. Vital signs are within normal limits. Physical examination shows limited jaw opening and muscle spasms over the lateral right face. Otoscopic examination is within normal limits. Which of the following nerves contributes to this patient’s ear pain?  



Jake Ryan

Tanner Marshall, MS

Temporomandibular disorders are a group of disorders that all involve the temporomandibular joint, which is located between the temporal bone of the skull and mandible, or jawbone; as well as the muscles and associated structures that are involved in chewing and speech.

Normally, between the temporal bone and the mandible is a synovial cavity, which is wrapped in fibrocartilage and filled with synovial fluid, which is a protein rich fluid that reduces friction between the sliding bones.

The synovial cavity is divided into an upper and lower compartment by an articular disc within the synovial fluid.

The lower compartment is bound, inferiorly, by the condylar head of the mandible.

The lower compartment allows the mandible to rotate, which lets the mouth open and close.

The upper compartment is bound, superiorly, by two regions of the temporal bone: the mandibular fossa, in the middle and back, and articular tubercle, in the front.

Separating these two compartments is the articular disc.

The upper compartment allows the condylar head to move forward and rotate.

The movements of the temporomandibular joint are coordinated by numerous muscles, including: the temporalis, which is a fan-shaped muscle on both sides of the cranium; the masseter, which connects to the mandible and the zygomatic arch of the temporal bone; the medial pterygoid, which connects to the mandible and medial aspect of the lateral pterygoid plate; and the lateral pterygoid, found at the condylar process.

These muscles are innervated by branches of the trigeminal nerve.

Now, the causes of temporomandibular disorders can be categorized as intra-articular, within the joint, or extra-articular, involving the surrounding musculature.

Intra-articular causes, are called temporomandibular joint disorders, and they include things like abnormalities of the bones in the joint, inflammation in the joint from conditions like osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis; disorders of the articular disk; laxity of the fibrocartilage allowing for temporomandibular hyper or hypo-mobility; or trauma that might result in structural damage or bleeding inside the joint.


Temporomandibular disorders are a group of musculoskeletal disorders that result from dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint or masticatory muscles controlling the jaw. It is characterized by pain or discomfort in the jaw, face, and neck, as well as difficulty with chewing, talking, and even yawning.

Some of the causes of TMJ dysfunction include injury to the jaw, arthritis, or stress that causes clenching or grinding of the teeth. It can also result from a misaligned bite, or a structural problem with the jaw joint itself. Treatment of temporomandibular disorder depends on the underlying cause, but the initial goal is to help reduce pain and restore normal jaw function. Also, physical therapy involving jaw exercises can help with pain and range of motion.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  5. "Diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders: indication of imaging exams" Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology (2016)
  6. "Temporomandibular Disorders: “Occlusion” Matters!" Pain Research and Management (2018)
  7. "Functional disorders of the temporomandibular joints: Internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint" The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences (2018)

Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.