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Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Premature ovarian failure
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Intrauterine growth restriction
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Neonatal herpes simplex
Congenital rubella syndrome
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
Amenorrhea: Pathology Review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
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Zachary Kevorkian, MSMI
Testicular cancers are malignant tumors that form in one or both testes. They usually present as a mass that’s often detected in the early stages since they are on an organ that’s easily accessible during physical examination. Thus, they typically have a good prognosis.
The testes are a pair of male reproductive glands the size of small plums, that are located in the scrotum. The testes themselves are covered on the outside by the tunica albuginea, a white, fibrous layer.
If we slice a testis open and look inside, sorry for the cringe moment, we can see septa that partition each testis into lobules. Each lobule contains up to four seminiferous tubules, where sperm is synthesized.
Now let’s zoom in on a single seminiferous tubule, which is the “sperm factory”. A seminiferous tubule has a thick wall of epithelial cells that surround a fluid-filled lumen, a bit like a garden hose.
The wall of the tubule is made up of two kinds of cells: at the periphery, there’s the germ cells known as spermatogonia, which are the primordial sperm cells that begin dividing over and over in puberty, and give rise to male gametes.
Next to them are Sertoli cells which are large cells that extend from the margin all the way to the lumen of the tubule. Sertoli cells are supportive cells that provide nutrients to developing sperm cells, and contribute to the blood-testis barrier by only allowing certain molecules, like testosterone, into the seminiferous tubules.
Outside the tubule, there’s connective tissue with capillaries, as well as Leydig cells - another supportive cell which produces testosterone, which is a hormone necessary for the proper development of sperm.
Testicular cancers are malignant tumors that form in one or both testes. They usually present as a mass that's often detected in the early stages. Major types of testicular cancer include germ-cell testicular cancer and non-germ-cell testicular cancer. Germ cell testicular cancers come from germ cells that normally develop into sperm.
Their five main subtypes include seminomas, teratomas, yolk sac tumors or endodermal sinus tumors, choriocarcinoma or placental tissue tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Non-germ cell testicular cancers come from the Sertoli cells or the Leydig cells which can secrete excess sex hormones. Risk factors for developing testicular cancer include cryptorchidism, Klinefelter syndrome, and in-utero exposure to pesticides and synthetic sex hormones. Treatment of testicular cancer involves surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
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