Summary of Testicular torsion
Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord twists, cutting off the testicle's blood supply, leading to ischemia. The principal symptom is rapid onset of testicular pain. The most common underlying cause in adolescents and neonates is a congenital malformation known as a "bell-clapper deformity" wherein the testis is inadequately affixed to the scrotum allowing it to move freely on its axis and susceptible to induced twisting of the cord and its vessels. Testicular malignancy is the most common etiology in adults. Diagnosis is clinical, with surgical detorsion urgently performed to prevent necrosis of the testicle and possible subfertility.