Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

00:00 / 00:00



Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Prerequisite basic sciences

Prerequisite basic sciences

Prerequisite basic sciences


Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics


0 / 10 complete


Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

of complete

External References

First Aid








Diabetes insipidus p. 351

thiazides for p. 633

Heart failure p. 318

thiazides for p. 633

Hypercalcemia p. 615

thiazides as cause p. 633


thiazides for p. 633


thiazides p. 633

Hyperlipidemia p. 307

thiazides p. 633

Hypertension p. 306

thiazides for p. 633


thiazides p. 633

Hyponatremia p. 615

thiazides p. 633

Metabolic alkalosis p. 610, 616

thiazides p. 633

Osteoporosis p. 472

thiazides for p. 633

Thiazide diuretics

heart failure p. 318

hypertension p. 323

Thiazides p. 633

gout p. 251

site of action p. 631

External Links


Diuretics are medications that act on the kidneys to increase production of urine, therefore elimination of water from the body.

There are 5 main types of diuretics - carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, osmotic diuretics, loop diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics, and last but not least, thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics - which we’ll get intimately acquainted with during this video.

Now, the basic unit of the kidney is called a nephron, and each nephron is made up of a glomerulus, which filters the blood. The filtered content goes through the renal tubule, where excess waste and molecules, such as ions and water, are removed or filtered through an exchange between the tubule and the peritubular capillaries.

So the renal tubule plays a huge role in secretion and reabsorption of fluid and ions - such as sodium, potassium, and chloride, in order to maintain homeostasis - or the balance of fluid and ions in our body.

The renal tubule has a few segments of its own: the proximal convoluted tubule; the U-shaped loop of Henle, with a thin descending, a thin ascending, and a thick ascending limb; and finally, the distal convoluted tubule, which empties into the collecting duct, which collects the urine.

Alright, so thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are taken perorally, and once in the blood, they travel to the kidneys where they are secreted by the proximal convoluted tubule into the lumen of the renal tubule.

An important point to make here is that they are secreted by the same secretory system that secretes uric acid into the tubule, so they compete with the secretion of uric acid, therefore increasing uric acid levels in the blood.


Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are a class of medications used to treat hypertension and edema by promoting the elimination of salt and water from the body. Thiazide diuretics work by inhibiting reabsorption, specifically by blocking the sodium-chloride symporter in the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney. This in turn leads to increased excretion of sodium and water.

The most commonly used thiazides are chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide; and the most commonly used thiazide-like diuretics are metolazone, indapamide, and chlorthalidone. Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are generally considered safe and effective drugs for treating high blood pressure and edema. However, they can cause some side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, increased blood sugar levels, and increased uric acid levels.


  1. "Katzung & Trevor's Pharmacology Examination and Board Review,12th Edition" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  2. "Rang and Dale's Pharmacology" Elsevier (2019)
  3. "Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 13th Edition" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2017)
  4. "Comparison of thiazide-like diuretics versus thiazide-type diuretics: a meta-analysis" Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (2017)
  5. "Clinical and Molecular Features of Thiazide-Induced Hyponatremia" Current Hypertension Reports (2018)

Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.