Inferior vena cava
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) (Latin: vena, vein, cavus, hollow), is the inferior of the two venae cavae, the large veins that carry deoxygenated blood from the body into the right atrium of the heart. The inferior vena cava carries blood from the lower half of the body whilst the superior vena cava carries blood from the upper half of the body. It is formed by the joining of the right and the left common iliac veins, usually at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.
The azygos vein is a vein running up the side of the thoracic vertebral column draining itself towards the superior vena cava. It connects the systems of superior vena cava and inferior vena cava and can provide an alternative path for blood to the right atrium when either of the venae cavae is blocked.
Internal jugular vein
The internal jugular vein is a paired vein collecting the blood from the brain, the superficial parts of the face, and the neck. An internal jugular vein is a type of jugular vein.
The hemiazygos vein (vena azygos minor inferior) is a vein running superiorly in the lower thoracic region, just to the left side of the vertebral column.
The left and right brachiocephalic veins (or innominate veins) in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. This is at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. The left brachiocephalic vein is usually longer than the right.
Internal thoracic vein
In human anatomy, the internal thoracic vein (previously known as the internal mammary vein) is a vessel that drains the chest wall and breasts.