Thymoma is a rare type of tumor that arises from the epithelial cells of the thymus gland that is located in the chest behind the breastbone. Thymomas may not cause any symptoms in the early stages of the disease, but as they grow and compress the nearby structures, causing symptoms like superior vena cava syndrome, dysphagia, cough, or chest pain.
Thymomas are frequently associated with the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis or autoimmune conditions like pure red cell aplasia and Good syndrome. Diagnosis of thymoma involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options may include surgery to remove the tumor, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.