Thymoma

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Thymoma

Immune system

General infections

Sepsis

Neonatal sepsis

Abscesses

Hypersensitivity reactions

Type I hypersensitivity

Food allergy

Anaphylaxis

Asthma

Type II hypersensitivity

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

Goodpasture syndrome

Rheumatic heart disease

Myasthenia gravis

Graves disease

Pemphigus vulgaris

Type III hypersensitivity

Serum sickness

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

Type IV hypersensitivity

Graft-versus-host disease

Contact dermatitis

Transplants

Transplant rejection

Graft-versus-host disease

Cytomegalovirus infection after transplant (NORD)

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (NORD)

Immunodeficiences

X-linked agammaglobulinemia

Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency

IgG subclass deficiency

Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

Isolated primary immunoglobulin M deficiency

Thymic aplasia

DiGeorge syndrome

Severe combined immunodeficiency

Adenosine deaminase deficiency

Ataxia-telangiectasia

Hyper IgM syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency

Chediak-Higashi syndrome

Chronic granulomatous disease

Complement deficiency

Hereditary angioedema

Asplenia

Immune system organ disorders

Thymoma

Ruptured spleen

Immune system pathology review

Blood transfusion reactions and transplant rejection: Pathology review

Immunodeficiencies: T-cell and B-cell disorders: Pathology review

Immunodeficiencies: Combined T-cell and B-cell disorders: Pathology review

Immunodeficiencies: Phagocyte and complement dysfunction: Pathology review

Assessments

Thymoma

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Thymoma

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Questions

USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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A 38-year-old man comes to his primary care physician for evaluation of intermittent muscle weakness that began around three months ago. He reports having episodes of “seeing-double” and having difficulty chewing that occur in the evening and resolve the next morning. Past medical history is notable for asthma, for which he intermittently uses an albuterol inhaler. His temperature is 37.6°C (99.7°F), pulse is 65/min and blood pressure is 122/71 mmHg. During the physical examination, the patient is asked to look upwards toward the ceiling for 60 seconds. This maneuver elicits bilateral diplopia. The remainder of the examination is noncontributory. Workup is sent to confirm the diagnosis, and the patient is started on the first-line medication for his condition. Which of the following is a likely side-effect from overdose of this medication?

Memory Anchors and Partner Content

External References

First Aid

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2016

Myasthenia gravis p. 484

thymoma association p. 96

Thymomas

myasthenia gravis and p. 221, 483

paraneoplastic syndromes p. 221

Summary

Thymoma is a rare type of tumor that arises from the epithelial cells of the thymus gland that is located in the chest behind the breastbone. Thymomas may not cause any symptoms in the early stages of the disease, but as they grow and compress the nearby structures, causing symptoms like superior vena cava syndrome, dysphagia, cough, or chest pain.

Thymomas are frequently associated with the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis or autoimmune conditions like pure red cell aplasia and Good syndrome. Diagnosis of thymoma involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options may include surgery to remove the tumor, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Elsevier

Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

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