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Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)

Summary of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic protozoan that causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, but felids such as domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite can undergo sexual reproduction. Cleaning cat litter boxes is a potential route of infection. Transmission is by ingesting cysts in undercooked meat. It is part of ToRCHeS infections and if transmission occurs in a pregnant woman, the fetus can acquire congenital toxoplasmosis consisting of the triad of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications. 

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Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)

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Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)

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A 1-day-old girl is admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for evaluation of jaundice and microcephaly. The infant was delivered by cesarean section at 36 weeks due to fetal growth restriction. Hepatosplenomegaly, intracranial calcifications and microcephaly were detected by ultrasonography during the patients gestation. The mother remained in the northeast United States for the duration of her pregnancy and did not travel. Vital signs are within normal limits. Physical examination demonstrates jaundice and widespread petechiae. The liver is palpable 5 cm below the costal margin. MRI brain reveals hydrocephalus and diffuse intracranial calcifications. Fundoscopy is notable for the finding as demonstrated below. Which of the following maternal exposures is the most likely etiology of this patient’s clinical condition?  


Reproduced from: wikipedia 

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