Transient ischemic attack
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia, without acute infarction. TIAs have the same underlying cause as strokes which is a disruption of cerebral blood flow. Symptoms usually last only a few minutes to an hour but may persist for up to 24 hours. TIAs cause the same symptoms associated with strokes, such as contralateral paralysis or sudden weakness or numbness.
A TIA may cause sudden dimming or loss of vision (amaurosis fugax), aphasia, dysarthria, and mental confusion. But unlike a stroke, the symptoms of a TIA can resolve within a few minutes or 24 hours. Having a TIA is a risk factor for eventually having a stroke or a silent stroke. Treatment may include blood thinners or antiplatelet medications to prevent blood clots, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation, exercise, and a healthy diet to lower the risk of further TIAs or stroke. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a blockage in the blood vessels.