Trigeminal neuralgia, also known as prosopalgia, tic douloureux, or Fothergill's disease, is a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense pain in the face. It has been described as among the most painful conditions known. The pain originates from a variety of different locations on the face and may be felt in front of the ear, eye, lips, nose, scalp, forehead, cheeks, mouth, or jaw, and side of the face.
Trigeminal neuralgia is often caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve, although the exact cause is not always clear. Treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia include medication, such as anticonvulsants or muscle relaxants, or surgical procedures such as microvascular decompression, radiofrequency ablation, or stereotactic radiosurgery.